Linuxdoc Linux Questions
Click here to ask our community of linux experts!
Custom Search
Next Previous Contents

7. Programming languages

While any programming language can be used for artificial intelligence/life research, these are programming languages which are used extensively for, if not specifically made for, artificial intelligence programming.

Alloy

The Alloy Analyzer is a tool for analyzing models written in Alloy, a simple structural modeling language based on first-order logic. The tool can generate instances of invariants, simulate the execution of operations (even those defined implicitly), and check user-specified properties of a model. Alloy and its analyzer have been used primarily to explore abstract software designs. Its use in analyzing code for conformance to a specification and as an automatic test case generator are being investigated in ongoing research projects.

APRIL

APRIL is a symbolic programming language that is designed for writing mobile, distributed and agent-based systems especially in an Internet environment. It has advanced features such as a macro sub-language, asynchronous message sending and receiving, code mobility, pattern matching, higher-order functions and strong typing. The language is compiled to byte-code which is then interpreted by the APRIL runtime-engine. APRIL now requires the InterAgent Communications Model (ICM) to be installed before it can be installed. [Ed. ICM can be found at the same web site]

Ciao Prolog

Ciao is a complete Prolog system subsuming ISO-Prolog with a novel modular design which allows both restricting and extending the language. Ciao extensions currently include feature terms (records), higher-order, functions, constraints, objects, persistent predicates, a good base for distributed execution (agents), and concurrency. Libraries also support WWW programming, sockets, and external interfaces (C, Java, TCL/Tk, relational databases, etc.). An Emacs-based environment, a stand-alone compiler, and a toplevel shell are also provided.

Curry

Curry is a universal programming language aiming to amalgamate the most important declarative programming paradigms, namely functional programming and logic programming. Moreover, it also covers the most important operational principles developed in the area of integrated functional logic languages: "residuation" and "narrowing" (there is an older survey and a newer survey on functional logic programming).

Curry combines in a seamless way features from functional programming (nested expressions, higher-order functions, lazy evaluation), logic programming (logical variables, partial data structures, built-in search), and concurrent programming (concurrent evaluation of expressions with synchronization on logical variables). Moreover, Curry provides additional features in comparison to the pure languages (compared to functional programming: search, computing with partial information; compared to logic programming: more efficient evaluation due to the deterministic and demand-driven evaluation of functions).

DHARMI

DHARMI is a high level spatial, tinker-toy like language who's components are transparently administered by a background process called the Habitat. As the name suggests, the language was designed to make modelling prototypes and handle living data. Programs can be modified while running. This is accomplished by blurring the distinction between source code, program, and data.

ECLiPSe

ECLiPSe is a software system for the cost-effective development and deployment of constraint programming applications, e.g. in the areas of planning, scheduling, resource allocation, timetabling, transport etc. It is also ideal for teaching most aspects of combinatorial problem solving, e.g. problem modelling, constraint programming, mathematical programming, and search techniques. It contains several constraint solver libraries, a high-level modelling and control language, interfaces to third-party solvers, an integrated development environment and interfaces for embedding into host environments.

ECoLisp

ECoLisp (Embeddable Common Lisp) is an implementation of Common Lisp designed for being embeddable into C based applications. ECL uses standard C calling conventions for Lisp compiled functions, which allows C programs to easily call Lisp functions and viceversa. No foreign function interface is required: data can be exchanged between C and Lisp with no need for conversion. ECL is based on a Common Runtime Support (CRS) which provides basic facilities for memory managment, dynamic loading and dumping of binary images, support for multiple threads of execution. The CRS is built into a library that can be linked with the code of the application. ECL is modular: main modules are the program development tools (top level, debugger, trace, stepper), the compiler, and CLOS. A native implementation of CLOS is available in ECL: one can configure ECL with or without CLOS. A runtime version of ECL can be built with just the modules which are required by the application. The ECL compiler compiles from Lisp to C, and then invokes the GCC compiler to produce binaries.

ESTEREL

Esterel is both a programming language, dedicated to programming reactive systems, and a compiler which translates Esterel programs into finite-state machines. It is particularly well-suited to programming reactive systems, including real-time systems and control automata.

Only the binary is available for the language compiler. :P

Gödel

Gödel is a declarative, general-purpose programming language in the family of logic programming languages. It is a strongly typed language, the type system being based on many-sorted logic with parametric polymorphism. It has a module system. Gödel supports infinite precision integers, infinite precision rationals, and also floating-point numbers. It can solve constraints over finite domains of integers and also linear rational constraints. It supports processing of finite sets. It also has a flexible computation rule and a pruning operator which generalizes the commit of the concurrent logic programming languages. Considerable emphasis is placed on Gödel's meta- logical facilities which provide significant support for meta-programs that do analysis, transformation, compilation, verification, debugging, and so on.

CLisp (Lisp)

CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll. It mostly supports the Lisp described by Common LISP: The Language (2nd edition) and the ANSI Common Lisp standard. CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS (Object-Oriented Lisp) , a foreign language interface and, for some machines, a screen editor.

The user interface language (English, German, French) is chosen at run time. Major packages that run in CLISP include CLX & Garnet. CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory.

CMU Common Lisp

CMU Common Lisp is a public domain "industrial strength" Common Lisp programming environment. Many of the X3j13 changes have been incorporated into CMU CL. Wherever possible, this has been done so as to transparently allow the use of either CLtL1 or proposed ANSI CL. Probably the new features most interesting to users are SETF functions, LOOP and the WITH-COMPILATION-UNIT macro.

GCL (Lisp)

GNU Common Lisp (GCL) has a compiler and interpreter for Common Lisp. It used to be known as Kyoto Common Lisp. It is very portable and extremely efficient on a wide class of applications. It compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem-prover and symbolic algebra systems. It supports the CLtL1 specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI definition. GCL compiles to C and then uses the native optimizing C compilers (e.g., GCC). A function with a fixed number of args and one value turns into a C function of the same number of args, returning one value, so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls. It has a conservative garbage collector which allows great freedom for the C compiler to put Lisp values in arbitrary registers.

It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code, with display of source code in an Emacs window. Its profiling tools (based on the C profiling tools) count function calls and the time spent in each function.

GNU Prolog

GNU Prolog is a free Prolog compiler with constraint solving over finite domains developed by Daniel Diaz.

GNU Prolog accepts Prolog+constraint programs and produces native binaries (like gcc does from a C source). The obtained executable is then stand-alone. The size of this executable can be quite small since GNU Prolog can avoid to link the code of most unused built-in predicates. The performances of GNU Prolog are very encouraging (comparable to commercial systems).

Beside the native-code compilation, GNU Prolog offers a classical interactive interpreter (top-level) with a debugger.

The Prolog part conforms to the ISO standard for Prolog with many extensions very useful in practice (global variables, OS interface, sockets,...).

GNU Prolog also includes an efficient constraint solver over Finite Domains (FD). This opens contraint logic pogramming to the user combining the power of constraint programming to the declarativity of logic programming.

IBAL

IBAL (pronounced "eyeball") is a general-purpose language for probabilistic modeling, parameter estimation and decision making. It generalizes Bayesian networks, hidden Markov models, stochastic context free grammars, Markov decision processes, and allows many new possibilities. It also provides a convenient programming-language framework with libraries, automatic type checking and so on.

lush

Lush is an object-oriented programming language designed for researchers, experimenters, and engineers interested in large-scale numerical and graphic applications. Lush is designed to be used in situations where one would want to combine the flexibility of a high-level, weakly-typed interpreted language, with the efficiency of a strongly-typed, natively-compiled language, and with the easy integration of code written in C, C++, or other languages.

Maude

Maude is a high-performance reflective language and system supporting both equational and rewriting logic specification and programming for a wide range of applications. Maude has been influenced in important ways by the OBJ3 language, which can be regarded as an equational logic sublanguage. Besides supporting equational specification and programming, Maude also supports rewriting logic computation.

Mercury

Mercury is a new, purely declarative logic programming language. Like Prolog and other existing logic programming languages, it is a very high-level language that allows programmers to concentrate on the problem rather than the low-level details such as memory management. Unlike Prolog, which is oriented towards exploratory programming, Mercury is designed for the construction of large, reliable, efficient software systems by teams of programmers. As a consequence, programming in Mercury has a different flavor than programming in Prolog.

Mozart

The Mozart system provides state-of-the-art support in two areas: open distributed computing and constraint-based inference. Mozart implements Oz, a concurrent object-oriented language with dataflow synchronization. Oz combines concurrent and distributed programming with logical constraint-based inference, making it a unique choice for developing multi-agent systems. Mozart is an ideal platform for both general-purpose distributed applications as well as for hard problems requiring sophisticated optimization and inferencing abilities. We have developed applications in scheduling and time-tabling, in placement and configuration, in natural language and knowledge representation, multi-agent systems and sophisticated collaborative tools.

SWI Prolog

SWI is a free version of prolog in the Edinburgh Prolog family. It is licensed under the LGPL with many nice features for an AI researcher, such as; a large library of built-in predicates, a module system, garbage collection, a two-way interface with the C/C++ language, coroutines, multi-threading, multiple constraint library, the XPCE graphics toolkit, plus many more.

Push

Push is a programming language intended primarily for use in evolutionary computation systems (such as genetic programming systems), as the language in which evolving programs are expressed. Push has an unusually simple syntax, which facilitates the development (or evolution) of mutation and recombination operators that generate and manipulate programs. Despite this simple syntax, Push provides more expressive power than most other program representations that are used for program evolution.

Includes several libraries/systems for working with GP (all info on the Push page). PushGP is a genetic programming system that evolves programs in the Push programming language. Pushpop is an "autoconstructive evolution" system that also evolves Push programs. SwarmEvolve 2.0 is an autoconstuctive evolution system in which flying agents, controlled by Push programs, evolve in a 3D environment.

Kali Scheme

Kali Scheme is a distributed implementation of Scheme that permits efficient transmission of higher-order objects such as closures and continuations. The integration of distributed communication facilities within a higher-order programming language engenders a number of new abstractions and paradigms for distributed computing. Among these are user-specified load-balancing and migration policies for threads, incrementally-linked distributed computations, agents, and parameterized client-server applications. Kali Scheme supports concurrency and communication using first-class procedures and continuations. It integrates procedures and continuations into a message-based distributed framework that allows any Scheme object (including code vectors) to be sent and received in a message.

RScheme

RScheme is an object-oriented, extended version of the Scheme dialect of Lisp. RScheme is freely redistributable, and offers reasonable performance despite being extraordinarily portable. RScheme can be compiled to C, and the C can then compiled with a normal C compiler to generate machine code. By default, however, RScheme compiles to bytecodes which are interpreted by a (runtime) virtual machine. This ensures that compilation is fast and keeps code size down. In general, we recommend using the (default) bytecode code generation system, and only compiling your time-critical code to machine code. This allows a nice adjustment of space/time tradeoffs. (see web site for details)

Scheme 48

Scheme 48 is a Scheme implementation based on a virtual machine architecture. Scheme 48 is designed to be straightforward, flexible, reliable, and fast. It should be easily portable to 32-bit byte-addressed machines that have POSIX and ANSI C support. In addition to the usual Scheme built-in procedures and a development environment, library software includes support for hygienic macros (as described in the Revised^4 Scheme report), multitasking, records, exception handling, hash tables, arrays, weak pointers, and FORMAT. Scheme 48 implements and exploits an experimental module system loosely derived from Standard ML and Scheme Xerox. The development environment supports interactive changes to modules and interfaces.

SCM (Scheme)

SCM conforms to the Revised^4 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme and the IEEE P1178 specification. Scm is written in C. It uses the following utilities (all available at the ftp site).

  • SLIB (Standard Scheme Library) is a portable Scheme library which is intended to provide compatibility and utility functions for all standard Scheme implementations, including SCM, Chez, Elk, Gambit, MacScheme, MITScheme, scheme->C, Scheme48, T3.1, and VSCM, and is available as the file slib2c0.tar.gz. Written by Aubrey Jaffer.
  • JACAL is a symbolic math system written in Scheme, and is available as the file jacal1a7.tar.gz.
  • Interfaces to standard libraries including REGEX string regular expression matching and the CURSES screen management package.
  • Available add-on packages including an interactive debugger, database, X-window graphics, BGI graphics, Motif, and Open-Windows packages.
  • A compiler (HOBBIT, available separately) and dynamic linking of compiled modules.

Shift

Shift is a programming language for describing dynamic networks of hybrid automata. Such systems consist of components which can be created, interconnected and destroyed as the system evolves. Components exhibit hybrid behavior, consisting of continuous-time phases separated by discrete-event transitions. Components may evolve independently, or they may interact through their inputs, outputs and exported events. The interaction network itself may evolve.

STELLA

STELLA is a strongly typed, object-oriented, Lisp-like language, designed to facilitate symbolic programming tasks in artificial intelligence applications. STELLA preserves those features of Common Lisp deemed essential for symbolic programming such as built-in support for dynamic data structures, heterogeneous collections, first-class symbols, powerful iteration constructs, name spaces, an object-oriented type system with a meta-object protocol, exception handling, and language extensibility through macros, but without compromising execution speed, interoperability with non-STELLA programs, and platform independence. STELLA programs are translated into a target language such as C++, Common Lisp, or Java, and then compiled with the native target language compiler to generate executable code. The language constructs of STELLA are restricted to those that can be translated directly into native constructs of the intended target languages, thus enabling the generation of highly efficient as well as readable code.

YAP Prolog

YAP is a high-performance Prolog compiler developed at LIACC/Universidade do Porto. Its Prolog engine is based in the WAM (Warren Abstract Machine), with several optimizations for better performance. YAP follows the Edinburgh tradition, and is largely compatible with DEC-10 Prolog, Quintus Prolog, and especially with C-Prolog. Work on the more recent version of YAP strives at several goals:

  • Portability: The whole system is now written in C. YAP compiles in popular 32 bit machines, such as Suns and Linux PCs, and in a 64 bit machines, the Alphas running OSF Unix and Linux.
  • Performance: We have optimised the emulator to obtain performance comparable to or better than well-known Prolog systems. In fact, the current version of YAP performs better than the original one, written in assembly language.
  • Robustness: We have tested the system with a large array of Prolog applications.
  • Extensibility: YAP was designed internally from the beginning to encapsulate manipulation of terms. These principles were used, for example, to implement a simple and powerful C-interface. The new version of YAP extends these principles to accomodate extensions to the unification algorithm, that we believe will be useful to implement extensions such as constraint programming.
  • Completeness: YAP has for a long time provided most builtins expected from a Edinburgh Prolog implementation. These include I/O functionality, data-base operations, and modules. Work on YAP aims now at being compatible with the Prolog standard.
  • Openess: We would like to make new development of YAP open to the user community.
  • Research: YAP has been a vehicle for research within and outside our group. Currently research is going on on parallelisation and tabulation, and we have started work to support constraint handling.

Next Previous Contents