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Linux Advanced Routing & Traffic Control HOWTO

Bert Hubert

Netherlabs BV
Gregory Maxwell
Remco van Mook
Martijn van Oosterhout
Paul B Schroeder
Jasper Spaans
Revision History
Revision 1.1 2002-07-22
DocBook Edition

A very hands-on approach to iproute2, traffic shaping and a bit of netfilter.


Table of Contents
1. Dedication
2. Introduction
2.1. Disclaimer & License
2.2. Prior knowledge
2.3. What Linux can do for you
2.4. Housekeeping notes
2.5. Access, CVS & submitting updates
2.6. Mailing list
2.7. Layout of this document
3. Introduction to iproute2
3.1. Why iproute2?
3.2. iproute2 tour
3.3. Prerequisites
3.4. Exploring your current configuration
3.5. ARP
4. Rules - routing policy database
4.1. Simple source policy routing
4.2. Routing for multiple uplinks/providers
5. GRE and other tunnels
5.1. A few general remarks about tunnels:
5.2. IP in IP tunneling
5.3. GRE tunneling
5.4. Userland tunnels
6. IPv6 tunneling with Cisco and/or 6bone
6.1. IPv6 Tunneling
7. IPsec: secure IP over the Internet
8. Multicast routing
9. Queueing Disciplines for Bandwidth Management
9.1. Queues and Queueing Disciplines explained
9.2. Simple, classless Queueing Disciplines
9.3. Advice for when to use which queue
9.4. Terminology
9.5. Classful Queueing Disciplines
9.6. Classifying packets with filters
9.7. The Intermediate queueing device (IMQ)
10. Load sharing over multiple interfaces
10.1. Caveats
10.2. Other possibilities
11. Netfilter & iproute - marking packets
12. Advanced filters for (re-)classifying packets
12.1. The u32 classifier
12.2. The route classifier
12.3. Policing filters
12.4. Hashing filters for very fast massive filtering
13. Kernel network parameters
13.1. Reverse Path Filtering
13.2. Obscure settings
14. Advanced & less common queueing disciplines
14.1. bfifo/pfifo
14.2. Clark-Shenker-Zhang algorithm (CSZ)
14.3. DSMARK
14.4. Ingress qdisc
14.5. Random Early Detection (RED)
14.6. Generic Random Early Detection
14.7. VC/ATM emulation
14.8. Weighted Round Robin (WRR)
15. Cookbook
15.1. Running multiple sites with different SLAs
15.2. Protecting your host from SYN floods
15.3. Rate limit ICMP to prevent dDoS
15.4. Prioritizing interactive traffic
15.5. Transparent web-caching using netfilter, iproute2, ipchains and squid
15.6. Circumventing Path MTU Discovery issues with per route MTU settings
15.7. Circumventing Path MTU Discovery issues with MSS Clamping (for ADSL, cable, PPPoE & PPtP users)
15.8. The Ultimate Traffic Conditioner: Low Latency, Fast Up & Downloads
15.9. Rate limiting a single host or netmask
16. Building bridges, and pseudo-bridges with Proxy ARP
16.1. State of bridging and iptables
16.2. Bridging and shaping
16.3. Pseudo-bridges with Proxy-ARP
17. Dynamic routing - OSPF and BGP
18. Other possibilities
19. Further reading
20. Acknowledgements