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C. Sample root filesystem listings

/:
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 bin
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         4096 Nov  1 15:39 dev
drwx––x––x   3 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 etc
drwx––x––x   4 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 lib
drwx––x––x   5 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 mnt
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 proc
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 root
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 sbin
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 tmp
drwx––x––x   7 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 usr
drwx––x––x   5 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 var

/bin:
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        62660 Nov  1 15:39 ash
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         9032 Nov  1 15:39 cat
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        10276 Nov  1 15:39 chmod
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         9592 Nov  1 15:39 chown
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        23124 Nov  1 15:39 cp
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        23028 Nov  1 15:39 date
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        14052 Nov  1 15:39 dd
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        14144 Nov  1 15:39 df
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        69444 Nov  1 15:39 egrep
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root          395 Nov  1 15:39 false
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        69444 Nov  1 15:39 fgrep
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        69444 Nov  1 15:39 grep
-rwx––x––x   3 root     root        45436 Nov  1 15:39 gunzip
-rwx––x––x   3 root     root        45436 Nov  1 15:39 gzip
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         8008 Nov  1 15:39 hostname
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        12736 Nov  1 15:39 ln
-rws––x––x   1 root     root        15284 Nov  1 15:39 login
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        29308 Nov  1 15:39 ls
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         8268 Nov  1 15:39 mkdir
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         8920 Nov  1 15:39 mknod
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        24836 Nov  1 15:39 more
-rws––x––x   1 root     root        37640 Nov  1 15:39 mount
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        12240 Nov  1 15:39 mt
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        12932 Nov  1 15:39 mv
-r-x––x––x   1 root     root        12324 Nov  1 15:39 ps
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         5388 Nov  1 15:39 pwd
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        10092 Nov  1 15:39 rm
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            3 Nov  1 15:39 sh -> ash
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        25296 Nov  1 15:39 stty
-rws––x––x   1 root     root        12648 Nov  1 15:39 su
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         4444 Nov  1 15:39 sync
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root        19712 Nov  1 15:39 touch
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root          395 Nov  1 15:39 true
-rws––x––x   1 root     root        19084 Nov  1 15:39 umount
-rwx––x––x   1 root     root         5368 Nov  1 15:39 uname
-rwx––x––x   3 root     root        45436 Nov  1 15:39 zcat

/dev:
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            6 Nov  1 15:39 cdrom -> cdu31a
brw–rw–r––   1 root     root      15,   0 May  5  1998 cdu31a
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   0 Nov  1 15:29 console
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     uucp       5,  64 Sep  9 19:46 cua0
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     uucp       5,  65 May  5  1998 cua1
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     uucp       5,  66 May  5  1998 cua2
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     uucp       5,  67 May  5  1998 cua3
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,   0 Aug  8 13:54 fd0
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  36 Aug  8 13:54 fd0CompaQ
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  84 Aug  8 13:55 fd0D1040
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  88 Aug  8 13:55 fd0D1120
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  12 Aug  8 13:54 fd0D360
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  16 Aug  8 13:54 fd0D720
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 120 Aug  8 13:55 fd0D800
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  32 Aug  8 13:54 fd0E2880
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 104 Aug  8 13:55 fd0E3200
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 108 Aug  8 13:55 fd0E3520
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 112 Aug  8 13:55 fd0E3840
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  28 Aug  8 13:54 fd0H1440
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 124 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1600
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  44 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1680
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  60 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1722
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  76 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1743
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  96 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1760
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 116 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1840
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2, 100 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H1920
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            7 Nov  1 15:39 fd0H360 –> fd0D360
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            7 Nov  1 15:39 fd0H720 –> fd0D720
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  52 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H820
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  68 Aug  8 13:55 fd0H830
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,   4 Aug  8 13:54 fd0d360
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,   8 Aug  8 13:54 fd0h1200
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  40 Aug  8 13:54 fd0h1440
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  56 Aug  8 13:55 fd0h1476
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  72 Aug  8 13:55 fd0h1494
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  92 Aug  8 13:55 fd0h1600
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  20 Aug  8 13:54 fd0h360
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  48 Aug  8 13:55 fd0h410
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  64 Aug  8 13:55 fd0h420
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  24 Aug  8 13:54 fd0h720
brw–rw––––   1 root     floppy     2,  80 Aug  8 13:55 fd0h880
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   0 May  5  1998 hda
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   1 May  5  1998 hda1
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   2 May  5  1998 hda2
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   3 May  5  1998 hda3
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   4 May  5  1998 hda4
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   5 May  5  1998 hda5
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,   6 May  5  1998 hda6
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  64 May  5  1998 hdb
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  65 May  5  1998 hdb1
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  66 May  5  1998 hdb2
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  67 May  5  1998 hdb3
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  68 May  5  1998 hdb4
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  69 May  5  1998 hdb5
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       3,  70 May  5  1998 hdb6
crw–r–––––   1 root     kmem       1,   2 May  5  1998 kmem
crw–r–––––   1 root     kmem       1,   1 May  5  1998 mem
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           12 Nov  1 15:39 modem –> ttyS1
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           12 Nov  1 15:39 mouse –> psaux
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     root       1,   3 May  5  1998 null
crwxrwxrwx   1 root     root      10,   1 Oct  5 20:22 psaux
brw–r–––––   1 root     disk       1,   1 May  5  1998 ram
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   0 May  5  1998 ram0
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   1 May  5  1998 ram1
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   2 May  5  1998 ram2
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   3 May  5  1998 ram3
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   4 May  5  1998 ram4
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   5 May  5  1998 ram5
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   6 May  5  1998 ram6
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   7 May  5  1998 ram7
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   8 May  5  1998 ram8
brw–rw––––   1 root     disk       1,   9 May  5  1998 ram9
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            4 Nov  1 15:39 ramdisk –> ram0
***  I have only included devices for the IDE partitions I use.
***  If you use SCSI, then use the /dev/sdXX devices instead.
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   0 May  5  1998 tty0
crw–w–––––   1 root     tty        4,   1 Nov  1 15:39 tty1
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   2 Nov  1 15:29 tty2
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   3 Nov  1 15:29 tty3
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   4 Nov  1 15:29 tty4
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   5 Nov  1 15:29 tty5
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   6 Nov  1 15:29 tty6
crw–––––––   1 root     root       4,   7 May  5  1998 tty7
crw–––––––   1 root     tty        4,   8 May  5  1998 tty8
crw–––––––   1 root     tty        4,   9 May  8 12:57 tty9
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     root       4,  65 Nov  1 12:17 ttyS1
crw–rw–rw–   1 root     root       1,   5 May  5  1998 zero

/etc:
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          164 Nov  1 15:39 conf.modules
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          668 Nov  1 15:39 fstab
–rw–––––––   1 root     root           71 Nov  1 15:39 gettydefs
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          389 Nov  1 15:39 group
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          413 Nov  1 15:39 inittab
–rw–––––––   1 root     root           65 Nov  1 15:39 issue
–rw–r––r––   1 root     root          746 Nov  1 15:39 ld.so.cache
–rw–––––––   1 root     root           32 Nov  1 15:39 motd
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          949 Nov  1 15:39 nsswitch.conf
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 pam.d
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          139 Nov  1 15:39 passwd
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          516 Nov  1 15:39 profile
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root          387 Nov  1 15:39 rc
–rw–––––––   1 root     root           55 Nov  1 15:39 shells
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          774 Nov  1 15:39 termcap
–rw–––––––   1 root     root           78 Nov  1 15:39 ttytype
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           15 Nov  1 15:39 utmp –> ../var/run/utmp
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           15 Nov  1 15:39 wtmp –> ../var/log/wtmp

/etc/pam.d:
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          356 Nov  1 15:39 other

/lib:
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        45415 Nov  1 15:39 ld–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           11 Nov  1 15:39 ld–linux.so.2 –> ld–2.0.7.so
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root       731548 Nov  1 15:39 libc–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           13 Nov  1 15:39 libc.so.6 –> libc–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           17 Nov  1 15:39 libcom_err.so.2 –> libcom_err.so.2.0
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root         6209 Nov  1 15:39 libcom_err.so.2.0
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root       153881 Nov  1 15:39 libcrypt–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           17 Nov  1 15:39 libcrypt.so.1 –> libcrypt–2.0.7.so
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        12962 Nov  1 15:39 libdl–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           14 Nov  1 15:39 libdl.so.2 –> libdl–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           16 Nov  1 15:39 libext2fs.so.2 –> libext2fs.so.2.4
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        81382 Nov  1 15:39 libext2fs.so.2.4
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        25222 Nov  1 15:39 libnsl–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           15 Nov  1 15:39 libnsl.so.1 –> libnsl–2.0.7.so
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root       178336 Nov  1 15:39 libnss_files–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           21 Nov  1 15:39 libnss_files.so.1 –> libnss_files–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           14 Nov  1 15:39 libpam.so.0 –> libpam.so.0.64
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        26906 Nov  1 15:39 libpam.so.0.64
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           19 Nov  1 15:39 libpam_misc.so.0 –> libpam_misc.so.0.64
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root         7086 Nov  1 15:39 libpam_misc.so.0.64
–r–xr–xr–x   1 root     root        35615 Nov  1 15:39 libproc.so.1.2.6
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           15 Nov  1 15:39 libpwdb.so.0 –> libpwdb.so.0.54
–rw–r–r–––   1 root     root       121899 Nov  1 15:39 libpwdb.so.0.54
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           19 Nov  1 15:39 libtermcap.so.2 –> libtermcap.so.2.0.8
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        12041 Nov  1 15:39 libtermcap.so.2.0.8
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root        12874 Nov  1 15:39 libutil–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           16 Nov  1 15:39 libutil.so.1 –> libutil–2.0.7.so
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           14 Nov  1 15:39 libuuid.so.1 –> libuuid.so.1.1
–rwxr–xr–x   1 root     root         8039 Nov  1 15:39 libuuid.so.1.1
drwx––x––x   3 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 modules
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 security

/lib/modules:
drwx––x––x   4 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 2.0.35

/lib/modules/2.0.35:
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 block
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 cdrom

/lib/modules/2.0.35/block:
drwx––––––   1 root     root         7156 Nov  1 15:39 loop.o

/lib/modules/2.0.35/cdrom:
drwx––––––   1 root     root        24108 Nov  1 15:39 cdu31a.o

/lib/security:
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         8771 Nov  1 15:39 pam_permit.so

***  Directory stubs for mounting
/mnt:
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 cdrom
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 floppy

/proc:

/root:
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          176 Nov  1 15:39 .bashrc
–rw–––––––   1 root     root          182 Nov  1 15:39 .cshrc
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root          455 Nov  1 15:39 .profile
–rw–––––––   1 root     root         4014 Nov  1 15:39 .tcshrc

/sbin:
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        23976 Nov  1 15:39 depmod
–rwx––x––x   2 root     root       274600 Nov  1 15:39 e2fsck
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        41268 Nov  1 15:39 fdisk
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         9396 Nov  1 15:39 fsck
–rwx––x––x   2 root     root       274600 Nov  1 15:39 fsck.ext2
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        29556 Nov  1 15:39 getty
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         6620 Nov  1 15:39 halt
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        23116 Nov  1 15:39 init
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        25612 Nov  1 15:39 insmod
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        10368 Nov  1 15:39 kerneld
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root       110400 Nov  1 15:39 ldconfig
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         6108 Nov  1 15:39 lsmod
–rwx––x––x   2 root     root        17400 Nov  1 15:39 mke2fs
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         4072 Nov  1 15:39 mkfs
–rwx––x––x   2 root     root        17400 Nov  1 15:39 mkfs.ext2
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         5664 Nov  1 15:39 mkswap
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        22032 Nov  1 15:39 modprobe
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            4 Nov  1 15:39 reboot –> halt
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         7492 Nov  1 15:39 rmmod
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        12932 Nov  1 15:39 shutdown
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            6 Nov  1 15:39 swapoff –> swapon
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         5124 Nov  1 15:39 swapon
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            4 Nov  1 15:39 telinit –> init
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         6944 Nov  1 15:39 update

/tmp:

/usr:
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 bin
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 lib
drwx––x––x   3 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 man
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 sbin
drwx––x––x   3 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 share
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           10 Nov  1 15:39 tmp –> ../var/tmp

/usr/bin:
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        37164 Nov  1 15:39 afio
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         5044 Nov  1 15:39 chroot
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        10656 Nov  1 15:39 cut
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        63652 Nov  1 15:39 diff
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        12972 Nov  1 15:39 du
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        56552 Nov  1 15:39 find
–r–x––x––x   1 root     root         6280 Nov  1 15:39 free
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         7680 Nov  1 15:39 head
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         8504 Nov  1 15:39 id
–r–sr–xr–x   1 root     bin          4200 Nov  1 15:39 passwd
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        14856 Nov  1 15:39 tail
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root        19008 Nov  1 15:39 tr
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         7160 Nov  1 15:39 wc
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         4412 Nov  1 15:39 whoami

/usr/lib:
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           17 Nov  1 15:39 libncurses.so.4 –> libncurses.so.4.2
–rw–r–r–––   1 root     root       260474 Nov  1 15:39 libncurses.so.4.2

/usr/sbin:
–r–x––x––x   1 root     root        13684 Nov  1 15:39 fuser
–rwx––x––x   1 root     root         3876 Nov  1 15:39 mklost+found

/usr/share:
drwx––x––x   4 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 terminfo

/usr/share/terminfo:
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 l
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 v

/usr/share/terminfo/l:
–rw–––––––   1 root     root         1552 Nov  1 15:39 linux
–rw–––––––   1 root     root         1516 Nov  1 15:39 linux–m
–rw–––––––   1 root     root         1583 Nov  1 15:39 linux–nic

/usr/share/terminfo/v:
–rw–––––––   2 root     root         1143 Nov  1 15:39 vt100
–rw–––––––   2 root     root         1143 Nov  1 15:39 vt100–am

/var:
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 log
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 run
drwx––x––x   2 root     root         1024 Nov  1 15:39 tmp

/var/log:
–rw–––––––   1 root     root            0 Nov  1 15:39 wtmp

/var/run:
–rw–––––––   1 root     root            0 Nov  1 15:39 utmp

/var/tmp: