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3. Ru8miseis Ellnvikwv

Oloi oi Eurwpaioi xrnstes opoioudnpote leitourgikou sustnmatos, exouv duo problnmata: To prwto eivai n emfavisn twv eidikwv xaraktnrwv (grammatwv) tns glwssas, kai to deutero eivai va evnmerwsouv tov upologistn gia tnv allagn tou plnktrologiou. Malista ta pragmata eivai xeirotera, giati oi efarmoges dev perimevouv eidikous xaraktnres kai suxva apaitouv eidikes ru8miseis n metablntes periballovtos.

Gia tnv emfavisn twv xaraktnrwv xreiazetai va 3erouv oi efarmoges oti xrnsimopoieitai to set 737 n to 928 (=ISO-8859-7 n Latin-7). Epipros8eta 8a xreiastouv grammatoseires wste va faivovtai kai va tupwvovtai swsta ta ellnvika.

Gia mia grngorn egkatastasn ellnvikwv deite to avtistoixo kefalaio: Egkatastasi-Ellinikwn

3.1 Ellnvikes grammatoseires

Gia grammatoseires gia Tex, blepe Links-gia-Tex

GRAFIS

To egxeirnma GRAFIS exei skopo va sulle3ei oles tis ellnvikes grammatoseires gia X-Windows pou kukloforouv eleu8eres (PUBLIC DOMAIN) sto Diktuo, va tis omadopoinsei kata tupo n/kai xaraktnristika, va dior8wsei tuxov la8n pou autes exouv, va dnmiourgnsei vees grammatoseires kai telos, va tis paradwsei stnv Ellnvikn koivotnta ws public domain. Hdn to exei petuxei, deite http://hq.hellug.gr/~graphis/

To GRAFIS perilambavei OLA ta prongoumeva paketa me kales ellnvikes grammatoseires pou exouv kuklofornsei kata kairous:

=====================================================================
 Shmeiwseis apo Aggelo Xaritsi [ah@computer.org]:
 * ta Type1 (k.a.) 928 fonts moy exoyn to A tonoymeno se 2 theseis wste na
   einai symbata me windows texts. Epishs exoyn kai ta symbola poy leipoyn.
 * to kbd support gia ellhnika sto rxvt (poy exw kanei contribute) exei
   yposthriksh gia anw teleia kai ellhnika omoiwmatika kathws epishs
   kai grammata me tono/dialytika. Ola ayta prepei na perasoyn
   se X11 xkb-style (ala grISOXKb).

* X11greek:
Den iksera oti den bgainei h payla! An typwseis to PS bgainei
kanonika. Ara mallon einai bug toy X Type1 rasteriser.
BTW, exw kanei ki ena aplo filtro (grpsfilter) poy epitrepei printing 
greek texts mesa apo Netscape. Des parakatw!
H lysh poy allazei ola ta ksena fonts se ellhnika den einai swsth.

To greekXfonts-full-1.1.tgz egine me skopo:
* na mazepsei ta pio kala greek fonts poy yphrxan sto diktyo
  Exei ta grtex/grtt kai polla alla: grfixed, couriergr, helveticagr.
  Akoma fonts kai se 737 encodings.
* na xrhsimopoihsei "swsta" (XLFD) kai omoiogenh font names
* na prosferei Type1 scalable fonts ypshlhs poiothtas (ta opoia
  prosferontai kai xwrista) - grinet
* na doyleyei trasnsparently me Netscape
=====================================================================

Truetype

Teleutaia uparxei n duvatotnta va xrnsimopoinsei kaveis kai Truetype grammatoseires, me eva true-type font engine kai metatropeis, idavika gia osous exouv sulloges apo grammatoseires gia Windows/Mac. Deite http://www.freetype.org/ kai gia va stnsete true type grammatoseires sto magaz http://magaz.hellug.gr/10/05_TTFlinux.html.

Kaveva ergaleio gia va ftia3w fonts;

Ti fonts, bitmap (px. PCF/BDF) n Scalable (p.x. Type1, TTF) ;

Gia to prwto uparxouv diafora (xmbdfed polu kalo, xfedor oxi kai toso) Gia to deutero tipota ousiastiko (dustuxws). Dustuxws oti uparxei se stul Fontographer kai Icarus eivai se polu alpha stadio. To movo sobaro programma kai kata tn gvwmn mou to kalutero eivai to METAFONT alla 8elei diabasma.

Uparxei mia polu evdiaferousa selida sto diktuo: http://members.iworld.net/bumchul/xfont.html Stnv selida autn 8a brei kaveis - ektos apo plnrofories gia to pws 8a balei kaivouria fonts sto mnxavnma tou- ergaleia metatropns: px to ttftobdf. Episns uparxei to bdftopcf.

Evdiaferousa eivai episns kai n selida: http://user.online.be/gd33771/download.html me mia poikilia ttf fonts (px. gia va mporei kaveis va grafei got8ika se xterm)

3.2 Kovsola (text mode)

Oi teleutaies diavomes prepei va exouv ta ellnvika evswmatwmeva. Tre3te:

#setfont iso07.f16
#loadkeys gr
Eav dev deite muvnmata la8ous, tote exete ellnvika stnv kovsola ndn, allazouv me aristero ALT-SHIFT.

UP' OYIN: STO SHELL (bash, tcsh) DEN EXEI ELLHNIKA, KANONIKA. DOKIMASTE SE ENAN EDITOR, PX JOE,VI.

Greek-console

Stnv kovsola mporeite va xrnsimopoinsete to greek-console tou Giwrgou Keramida. Upostnrizei kai 737 kai 928, evw exei kai eukoln egkatastasn me rpm. Ta ellnvika faivovtai me "chcp 737" kai "chcp 928" kai (ap)evergopoiouvtai me (aristera) ALT-SHIFT. Episns to de3i ALT allazei stigmiaia to plnktrologio.

Purnves 2.2 kai ellnvika

H vea gevia purnvwv 2.2.x (kai ara kai oi 2.3.x), exouv veo kwdika gia tnv diaxeirisn tns o8ovns se text mode (eivai pleov me framebuffer) kai gia auto uparxouv problnmata stnv upostnri3n twv ellnvikwv stnv kovsola (oxi sto grafiko periballov). O Swtnrns Tsimpovns brnke tnv lusn, va proste8ei sto /etc/profile to e3ns:

[ -t 1 ] && printf "\033(K"
to opoio evergopoiei ta ellnvika otav kapoios kavei interactive login.

Loipa programmata gia kovsola

O Ale3ios Xouxoulas exei grayei episns to greek-2.0.tar.gz kai o Avtwvns Kabarvos (akav@hellug.gr) to grpty, pou douleuei kai se solaris.

3.3 Grafiko periballov (Xwindows)

Oi epiloges pou exei kaveis gia va grafei ellnvika katw apo XWindows se Linux eivai (perav tou va ta ftia3ei movos tou, px me xmodmap opws leei sto HRI): to GRkbd (n gevikotern lusn) , to grISOXKb (eav apotuxei to prongoumevo) kai to kikbd (gia to KDE).

GRkbd

To paketo auto apo to Giavvn Tsakirn eivai ousiastika mia snmaia pou allazei apo tnv mia glwssa stnv alln, opws 8umouvtai polloi apo ta windows-3.x. Eivai n pio eukoln lusn gia va exete ellnvika sto Linux sas kai 8a to breite sto metalab se source me to ovoma greek12.tgz kai stov Argea se binary. To tgz arxeio pou 8a katebasete, periexei eva README, kai eva ektelesimo pou 8a balete stov katalogo /usr/local/bin. Mia snmaia pou allazei apo ellnvikn se agglikn kai avapoda se ka8e klik, n me patnma tou aristerou ALT-SHIFT, 8a emfavistei stnv o8ovn otav to ektelesete. Diabaste to README.

KiKbd

To KiKbd eivai apo tous Alexander Budnik kai Dnmntrio Mpoura kai eivai evas komyos tropos va exei kaveis ellnvika sto KDE (sumperilambavetai). Douleye swsta me KDE=1.1.1 kai Qt=1.42 (alla oxi 1.44).

xgrk

Episns, eivai ev gvwsn mas n upar3n autou tou paketou gia ellnvika: http://www.softlab.ece.ntua.gr/~sivann/xgrk/ tou Spurou Iwavvou, pou eivai katallnlo gia polla tupou UNIX leitourgika sustnmata.

grISOXKb

H prwtn ekdosn tou grISOXKb (1997) eivai proiov suvergasias twv Dnmntrn Mpoura kai Leftern Tsivtzeln. To paketo grISOXKb eivai upersuvolo twv palaioterwv GRKbd (oxi auto tou Tsakirn - apln suvwvumia... ) kai grXiso. H version autn exei polla "kaloudia". Ta duo pio snmavtika eivai:

Perissotera sto README tou paketou, kai sta arxeia docs/INSTALLATION.*: ftp://argeas.hellug.gr/pub/unix/linux/GREEK/grISOXKb-1.2.tar.gz
=====================================================================
Apo [ah@computer.org]
Ta tonoymena (; + letter) de moy bgainoyn se shells (ok se xedit).
Den exw akomh brei giati.
To package einai ontws poly kalh prospatheia. Einai akoma ateles.
Leipoyn: tonoymena+dialytika, anw teleia, ellhnika omoiwmatika
(BTW, ola yposthrizontai sto rxvt compiled me greek support).
Epishs: ypothetei oti to keyboard einai ellhniko. Yparxoyn polla kbds
(opws ta UK, IT klp) poy exoyn polla symbols se theseis diaforetikes
apo to ellhniko (eg. @, ", \ klp). Exw hdh kanei patch sto grISOXKb
gia to UK keyboard kai kalo einai na mporei kaneis me COUNTRY-X 
keyboard na mporei na kanei type ellhnika xwris na allazoyn oi theseis
allwn symbols.

Mazi me fix twn parapanw to XKB X11 greek support tha einai sxedon teleio.
Ksereis an kai poy exei documentation gia XKB kai compose files.
Kapoios prepei na to teleiwsei. Doyleyei kaneis twra se ayto ?
=====================================================================

3.4 Zwvn wras (Timezone)

H Ellada brisketai stnv Wriaia Zwvn Avatolikns Eurwpns (Eastern European Timezone,EET), pou eivai isoduvamo me tnv wra Greenwich suv 2 wres (GMT+2), kata tnv xeimerivn periodo. To kalokairi otav givetai allagn wras, n swstn diafora eivai +0300 (EET DST), opou DST snmaivei Daylight Saving Time. Prokeimevou va givetai automata n metatropn, kalutera epile3te Europe/Athens. To 1996 alla3e n nmeromnvia allagns apo kalokairivn se xeimerivn wra (apo Septembrn, twra givetai Oktwbrn). Oi vees diavomes tou Linux meta to 1996 to exouv up' oyiv tous auto, oi palaioteres 8elouv dior8wsn. Deite ta epomeva upokefalaia sxetika me to 8ema.

tzHellas

Dhmhtrhs Bouras: Me to paron 0a h0ela na anakoinwsw ena mini-paketo pou parexei ena dior0wmeno arxeio gia to Ellhniko timezone, meta tis allages pou perisy kai fetos (1996) anakoinw0hkan gia tis hmeromhnies allaghs ths "kalokairinhs" wras. Mazi me auto yparxei kai ena mikro programmataki pou diabazei tetoia arxeia kai typwnei tis plhrofories pou periexoun se an0rwpina-anagnwsimh morfh (pws leme "human-readable form" - h metafrash twn agglikwn orwn dinei kai pairnei, etsi gia na anatrixiazoun merikoi-merikoi :) :)).

To paketaki (molis 4365 bytes) 0a to breite (entos oligou) sto

ftp://argeas.hellug.gr/pub/unix/linux/GREEK/tzHellas-271097.tar.gz

Katebaste to kai diabaste to README gia perissotera. Bottom line: to timezone file "Hellas" pou periexei, parexei swstes hmeromhnies allaghs wras (symfwna me thn prosfath epishmh anakoinwsh) gia thn Ellada, mexri kai ton Oktwbrio tou 2001, h mexri na mas alla3oune pali tis hmeromhnies... :)

EET.zic

=====================================================================
An 8elei na orisei kaneis timezone environment variable, ayth einai h 
svsth:
        setenv TZ 'EET-2EET DST-3,M3.5.0/3:00:00,M10.5.0/3:00:00'
vraio e? :-)

Pio kala bebaia einai na xrhsimopoioyme to svsto zoneinfo arxeio.
Oi teleytaies ekdoseis toy linux exoyn svsta orismeno 
to EET (allakse to 1996).
Oi palaioteres allazoyn thn vra to Septembrio, anti toy Oktvbrioy.
Etsi ftiaxnoyme to parakatv arxeio EET.zic:

----- CUT: EET.zic -----
Rule    E-Eur   1986    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00s   1:00    " DST"
Rule    E-Eur   1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00s   0       -
Rule    E-Eur   1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun 3:00s   0       -
Zone    EET             2:00    E-Eur           EET%s
----- CUT: END OF EET.zic -----

Meta:
        zic EET.zic
(ayto ftiaxnei to /usr/lib/zoneinfo/EET)
        /bin/rm -f /var/lib/zoneinfo/localtime
        ln -s /usr/lib/zoneinfo/localtime /var/lib/zoneinfo/EET
=====================================================================

3.5 Ektupwseis

Se auto to kefalaio 8a perigrayoume pws va ru8misete to sustnma sas wste va mporeite va ektupwsete ellnvika. Av dev eiste e3oikiwmevoi me ta basika sxetika me ta lpd kai lpr kalo 8a ntav va sumbouleuteite to Printing-HOWTO pou divei polutimes plnrofories.

Plain text se text ektupwtn pou upostnrizei ellnvika.

Eav o ektupwtns sas mporei va tupwsei plain text kai upostnrizei ellnvika, dev xreiazetai va kavete sxedov tipota. Apla steilte to keimevo gia ektupwsn me tnv evtoln lpr. Prose3te movo to 8ema tou set xaraktnrwv: bl. kefalaio greekcharsets . Eav o ektupwtns sas upostnrizei diaforetikn kwdikoselida apo autn pou eivai grammevo to keimevo, 8a prepei va to metatreyete, bl. convertgreek .

Plain text se ektupwtn pou dev upostnrizei ellnvika.

Av o ektupwtns sas dev upostnrizei ellnvika, 8a prepei va metatreyete to plain text keimevo se PostScript mesw tou a2ps (bl. a2ps ) kai va to tupwsete mesw tou Ghostscript. Eav exete problnmata, ya3te gia to a2psgr.

Tupwvovtas ellnviko PostScript keimevo.

Akomn kai eav dev dia8etete ektupwtn pou va upostnrizei PostScript, to Linux sas epitrepei va tupwvete tetoia keimeva mesw tou Ghostscript. To ghostcript eivai eva programma pou metatrepei PostScript arxeia se morfn pou mporouv va katalabouv alles suskeues (ektupwtes diaforwv eidwv, X Windows, fax k.l.). Apo auto to snmeio kai pera, "ektupwsn mesa apo to ghostscript" 8a snmaivei metatropn evos PostScript arxeiou sto format tou ektupwtn sas kai meta ektupwsn me kapoia evtoln tns morfns lpr file.

Ti 8a xreiasteite gia va tupwsete ellnvika apo to ghostview:

Dokimaste oti douleuei swsta px me tnv evtoln: {???}

gs -sDEVICE=deskjet -dNOPAUSE -sOutpoutFile=/dev/lp1 tiger.ps

Tropopoiwvtas to Fontmap

To Fontmap eivai to arxeio pou divei sto ghostscript pou 8a brei to arxeio ka8e grammatoseiras. Sto sustnma mou brisketai sto

/usr/share/ghostscript/3.33/Fontmap
. Av dev 3erete pou exei egkatasta8ei to diko sas, dwste
find / -name "Fontmap"
gia va to breite.

To Fontmap apoteleitai apo eggrafes tns morfns

/Charter-Roman                  (bchr.pfa)      ;
H grammn autn gia paradeigma deixvei oti n grammatoseira Courier-Roman brisketai sto arxeio bchr.pfa.

To movo pou xreiazetai va kavoume eivai va pros8esoume tis ellnvikes grammatoseires. Ta ovomata pou 8a dwsete stis grammatoseires sas mporouv va eivai opoiadnpote (p.x. PanosArialBold) alla kalo eivai va exouv mia logikn (p.x. to PanosArialBold va mnv avtistoixei se mia courier italic grammatoseira !!!). Av oi grammatoseires suvodeuovtai apo kapoio arxeio pou va tis perigrafei (p.x. fonts.scale) kalo 8a ntav va xrnsimopoinsete ovomata pou va eivai avtistoixa me auta pou divovtai ekei. Mporeite akomn va dwsete

strings filename.pfb | more
kai va koita3ete gia kapoia grammn tns morfns
/FontName /GreekArialBold def
Prosoxn! Ta ovomata twv arxeiwv otav dev perilambavouv to directory 8ewrouvtai pws briskovtai sto directory pou to ghostscript fulaei paromoia arxeia. Av oi grammatoseires sas briskovtai kapou allou va balete oloklnro to ovoma. Gia paradeigma,
/GreekArialPlain (/usr/X11/lib/X11/fonts/Type1GR/grkarip.pfb) ;

Av stelvete arxeia pros ektupwsn apo diafores efarmoges (p.x. Netscape) eivai polu pi8avo autes va xrnsimopoiouv kapoies default grammatoseires. Gia paradeigma, to Netscape 8a steilei opoiodnpote arxeio, ave3artnta apo tnv glwssa pou eivai grammevo, va tupw8ei me tis grammatoseires Times kai Courier. Auto 8a exei sav apotelesma va tupwvovtai ta ellnvika keimeva se akatavontn morfn (gia va to poume eugevika). H lusn eivai va pros8esete sto telos tou Fontmap eggrafes pou 8a avtika8istouv tis grammatoseires autes me tis ellnvikes. Gia paradeigma oi teleutaies grammes tou dikou mou Fontmap eivai:

/Times-Roman                    /GreekTimesPlain ;
/Times-Italic                   /GreekTimesItalic ;
/Times-Bold                     /GreekTimesBold ;
/Times-BoldItalic               /GreekBoldItalic ;
/Courier                        /GreekCourierPlain      ;
/Courier-Italic                 /GreekCourierItalic ;
/Courier-Bold                   /GreekCourierBold ;
/Courier-BoldItalic             /GreekCourierBoldItalic ;
H lusn autn dev eivai to idaviko alla toulaxistov douleuei.

Fontmap, pros8etes luseis

O 'Aggelos Xaritsns mou esteile tis dikes tou ru8miseis gia to problnma sxetika me to Fontmap, ka8ws kai eva programmataki, to grpsfilter (deite parakatw), me to opoio 8a mporesete va 3eperasete to problnma me to netscape xwris va peira3ete to fontmap.

Ta Fontmap aliases poy proteinw (kanei use ta Type1 fonts moy):
Pros to telos toy Fontmap:
===================cut==here=======================================
% ------------------------------------------------------
% Elot greek fonts by Angelo Haritsis <ah@computer.org>
% ------------------------------------------------------
/GreekArialPlain                (grkarip.pfb)   ;
/GreekArialBold                 (grkarib.pfb)   ;
/GreekArialItalic               (grkarii.pfb)   ;
/GreekArialBoldItalic           (grkaribi.pfb)  ;
/Greek-Arial-Plain              /GreekArialPlain ;
/Greek-Arial-Bold               /GreekArialBold ;
/Greek-Arial-Italic             /GreekArialItalic ;
/Greek-Arial-Bold-Italic        /GreekArialBoldItalic ;
/Greek-Arial-BoldItalic         /GreekArialBoldItalic ;

/GreekTimesPlain                (grktimp.pfb)   ;
/GreekTimesBold                 (grktimb.pfb)   ;
/GreekTimesItalic               (grktimi.pfb)   ;
/GreekTimesBoldItalic           (grktimbi.pfb)  ;
/Greek-Times-Plain              /GreekTimesPlain ;
/Greek-Times-Roman              /GreekTimesPlain ;
/Greek-Times-Bold               /GreekTimesBold ;
/Greek-Times-Italic             /GreekTimesItalic ;
/Greek-Times-Bold-Italic        /GreekTimesBoldItalic ;
/Greek-Times-BoldItalic         /GreekTimesBoldItalic ;

/GreekCourierPlain              (grkcurp.pfb)   ;
/GreekCourierBold               (grkcurb.pfb)   ;
/GreekCourierItalic             (grkcuri.pfb)   ;
/GreekCourierBoldItalic         (grkcurbi.pfb)  ;
/GreekCourier                   /GreekCourierPlain ;
/Greek-Courier                  /GreekCourierPlain ;
/Greek-Courier-Plain            /GreekCourierPlain ;
/Greek-Courier-Bold             /GreekCourierBold ;
/Greek-Courier-Italic           /GreekCourierItalic ;
/Greek-Courier-Bold-Italic      /GreekCourierBoldItalic ;
/Greek-Courier-BoldItalic       /GreekCourierBoldItalic ;

% Polytoniko Greek fonts
/GreekPolyTimesPlain            (grkpolp.pfb)   ;
/GreekPolyTimesItalic           (grkpoli.pfb)   ;
/Greek-Poly-Times-Plain         /GreekPolyTimesPlain ;
/Greek-Poly-Times-Italic        /GreekPolyTimesItalic ;
===================cut==here=======================================

grpsfilter

Na kai to aplo filtro grpsfilter:
-----------------------------grpsfilter-----------------------
#!/bin/sh
# Filter to print greek from Netscape (may be used in printcap)
# (c) 1997 Angelo Haritsis <ah@computer.org>
# NB: You need my postscript greek fonts and proper Fontmap!
#
exec sed -e 's/\/Times\(.* findfont\)/\/Greek-Times\1/g' \
    -e 's/\Courier\(.* findfont\)/\Greek-Courier\1/g' \
    -e 's/\/Times-Oblique\(.* findfont\)/Greek-Times-Italic\1/g' \
    -e 's/\/Times-BoldOblique\(.* findfont\)/Greek-Times-BoldItalic\1/g'
-----------------------------grpsfilter-----------------------

An ftiakseis enan printer `grps' sto printcap poy pernaei ola ta
Postscript mesa apo to grpsfilter, tote exeis ellhnikh ektypwsh
xwris na "xalaseis" to FontMap.

Profanws to filter doyleyei kai sto cmd line. Apo Netscape print to
a file: test.ps kai meta:
  grpsfilter <test.ps | ghostview -  

3.6 Pws kavw mount eva windows partition;

Proupo8esn gia auto eivai va exete kavei compile tov purnva me NLS, 737 kai iso-8859-7. Av 8elete va evergopoiouvtai ta ellnvika ovomata twv arxeiwv Windows automata se ka8e ekkivnsn tou sustnmatos, prepei va avtikatastnsete sto arxeio fstab stn grammn opou givetai mount tns katatmnsns me to vfat tn le3n default me tnv ru8misn iocharset=iso8859-7. Bazei kaveis parametrous sto /etc/fstab gia windows partition me ellnvika filenames, px:

/dev/hda1       /Win95  vfat    rw,user,codepage=737,iocharset=iso8859-7        0       0
n pervate tis parametrous kateu8eiav stnv evtoln mount, px:
mount -tvfat -onoexec,iocharset=iso8859-7 /dev/hda1 /Win95

3.7 Pws va grayw eva CD sto Linux;

Xrnsimopoinste to xcdroast, prose3te omws to format pou 8a diale3ete. To paradosiako protupo ISO9660 dev mporei va perilabei ola xaraktnristika pou exei eva UNIX filesystem opws auto tou Linux, to ext2. Avt' autou ta UNIX exouv to Rockridge, pou upostnrizei directories megalou ba8ous, mikra-megala grammata, ovomata me periergous xaraktnres (kai oi ellnvikoi eivai tetoioi gia ta CD), symbolic links, file permissions klp. To Romeo/Joliet pou eivai gia windows, dev eivai toso kalo oso to Rockridge (px dev grafei swsta ovomata pou arxizouv me teleia), gia auto xrnsimopoieiste stnv avagkn tnv xakia "Rockridge+Joliet", douleuei ayoga sto diabasma tou CD se polla leitourgika sustnmata.

Eav avarwtieste giati dev douleuei n egkatastasn tou Linux pou brnkate se kapoio CD, eivai polu pi8avos logos oti dev eivai Rockridge.


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