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8. Appendix: Differences between ipchains and ipfwadm.

Some of these changes are a result of kernel changes, and some a result of ipchains being different from ipfwadm.

  1. Many arguments have been remapped: capitals now indicates a command, and lower case now indicates an option.
  2. Arbitrary chains are supported, so even built-in chains have full names instead of flags (eg. `input' instead of `-I').
  3. The `-k' option has vanished: use `! -y'.
  4. The `-b' option actually inserts/appends/deletes two rules, rather than a single `bidirectional' rule.
  5. The `-b' option can be passed to `-C' to do two checks (one in each direction).
  6. The `-x' option to `-l' has been replaced by `-v'.
  7. Multiple source and destination ports are not supported anymore. Hopefully being able to negate the port range will somewhat make up for that.
  8. Interfaces can only be specified by name (not address). The old semantics got silently changed in the 2.1 kernel series anyway.
  9. Fragments are examined, not automatically allowed through.
  10. Explicit accounting chains have been done away with.
  11. Arbitrary protocols over IP can be tested for.
  12. The old behavior of SYN and ACK matching (which was previously ignored for non-TCP packets) has changed; the SYN option is not valid for non-TCP-specific rules.
  13. Counters are now 64-bit on 32-bit machines, not 32-bit.
  14. Inverse options are now supported.
  15. ICMP codes are now supported.
  16. Wildcard interfaces are now supported.
  17. TOS manipulations are now sanity-checked: the old kernel code would silently stop you from (illegally) manipulating the `Must Be Zero' TOS bit; ipchains now returns an error if you try, as well as for other illegal cases.

8.1 Quick-Reference table.

[ Mainly, command arguments are UPPER CASE, and option arguments are lower case ]

One thing to note, masquerading is specified by `-j MASQ'; it is completely different from `-j ACCEPT', and not treated as merely a side-effect, unlike ipfwadm does.

================================================================
| ipfwadm      | ipchains              | Notes
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -A [both]    | -N acct               | Create an `acct' chain
|              |& -I 1 input -j acct   | and have output and input
|              |& -I 1 output -j acct  | packets traverse it.
|              |& acct                 |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -A in        | input                 | A rule with no target
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -A out       | output                | A rule with no target
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -F           | forward               | Use this as [chain].
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -I           | input                 | Use this as [chain].
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -O           | output                | Use this as [chain].
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -M -l        | -M -L                 |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -M -s        | -M -S                 |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -a policy    | -A [chain] -j POLICY  | (but see -r and -m).
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -d policy    | -D [chain] -j POLICY  | (but see -r and -m).
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -i policy    | -I 1 [chain] -j POLICY| (but see -r and -m).
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -l           | -L                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -z           | -Z                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -f           | -F                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -p           | -P                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -c           | -C                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -P           | -p                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -S           | -s                    | Only takes one port or 
|              |                       | range, not multiples.
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -D           | -d                    | Only takes one port or 
|              |                       | range, not multiples.
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -V           | <none>                | Use -i [name].
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -W           | -i                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -b           | -b                    | Now actually makes 2 rules.
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -e           | -v                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -k           | ! -y                  | Doesn't work unless 
|              |                       | -p tcp also specified.
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -m           | -j MASQ               |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -n           | -n                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -o           | -l                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -r [redirpt] | -j REDIRECT [redirpt] |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -t           | -t                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -v           | -v                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -x           | -x                    |
----------------------------------------------------------------
| -y           | -y                    | Doesn't work unless 
|              |                       | -p tcp also specified.
----------------------------------------------------------------

8.2 Examples of translated ipfwadm commands

Old command: ipfwadm -F -p deny

New command: ipchains -P forward DENY

Old command: ipfwadm -F -a m -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0

New command: ipchains -A forward -j MASQ -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d 0.0.0.0/0

Old command: ipfwadm -I -a accept -V 10.1.2.1 -S 10.0.0.0/8 -D 0.0.0.0/0

New command: ipchains -A input -j ACCEPT -i eth0 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -d 0.0.0.0/0

(Note that there is no equivalent for specifying interfaces by address: use the interface name. On this machine, 10.1.2.1 corresponds to eth0).


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