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2. Linux init ("ASCII art")

Pictorially (loosely speaking :), Linux initialization looks like this, where "[...]" means optional (depends on the kernel's configuration) and "{...}" is a comment.


  +-------------------------------+
  | arch/i386/boot/setup.S:: +    |
  | arch/i386/boot/video.S::      |
  |-------------------------------|
  | start_of_setup:               |
  |   check that loaded OK        |
  |   get system memory size      |
  |   get video mode(s)           |
  |   get hard disk parameters    |
  |   get MC bus information      |
  |   get mouse information       |
  |   get APM BIOS information    |
  |   enable address line A20     |
  |   reset coprocessor           |
  |   mask all interrupts         |
  |   move to protected mode      |
  |   jmp to startup_32           |
  +-------------------------------+
                  |
                  v
  +-------------------------------+
  | arch/i386/kernel/head.S::     |
  |-------------------------------|
  | startup_32:                   |
  |   set segment registers to    |
  |     known values              |
  |   init basic page tables      |
  |   setup the stack pointer     |
  |   clear kernel BSS            |
  |   setup the IDT               |
  |   checkCPUtype                |
  |   load GDT, IDT, and LDT      |
  |     pointer registers         |
  |   start_kernel                |
  |     {it does not return}      |
  +-------------------------------+
                  |
                  v
  +-------------------------------+     +-------------------------------+
  | init/main.c::                 |  +->| arch/i386/kernel/setup.c::    |
  |-------------------------------|  |  |-------------------------------|
  | start_kernel():               |  |  | setup_arch():                 |
  |   lock_kernel                 |  |  |   copy boot parameters        |
  |   setup_arch                  |--+  |   init ramdisk                |
  |   parse_options               |<-+  |   setup_memory_region         |
  |   trap_init                   |  |  |   parse_cmd_line              |
  |     cpu_init                  |  |  |   use the BIOS memory map to  |
  |   init_IRQ                    |  |  |     setup page frame info.    |
  |   sched_init                  |  |  |   reserve physical page 0     |
  |     init_timervecs            |  |  |  [find_smp_config]            |
  |   time_init                   |  |  |   paging_init                 |
  |   softirq_init                |  |  |  [get_smp_config]             |
  |   console_init                |  |  |  [init_apic_mappings]         |
  |  [init_modules]               |  |  |  [reserve INITRD memory]      |
  |  [profiling setup]            |  |  |   probe_roms to search        |
  |   kmem_cache_init             |  |  |     for option ROMs           |
  |   sti                         |  |  |   request_resource to         |
  |   calibrate_delay             |  |  |     reserve video RAM memory  |
  |  [INITRD setup]               |  |  |   request_resource to         |
  |   mem_init                    |  |  |     reserve all standard PC   |
  |     free_all_bootmem          |  +--|     I/O system board resources|
  |   kmem_cache_sizes_init       |     +-------------------------------+
  |  [proc_root_init]             |
  |   fork_init                   |
  |   proc_caches_init            |
  |   vfs_caches_init             |
  |   buffer_init                 |
  |   page_cache_init             |
  |   kiobuf_setup                |
  |   signals_init                |     +-------------------------------+
  |   bdev_init                   |     | init/main.c::                 |
  |   inode_init                  |     | init(): {...init thread...}   |
  |  [ipc_init]                   |     |   do_basic_setup              |
  |  [dquot_init_hash]            |     |     {bus/dev init & initcalls}|
  |   check_bugs                  |     |   free_initmem                |
  |  [smp_init] {*below}          |     |   open /dev/console           |
  |   start init thread {---->}   |.....| exec init script or shell     |
  |   unlock_kernel               |     |   or panic                    |
  |   cpu_idle                    |     +-------------------------------+
  +-------------------------------+


  +-------------------------------+
  | smpboot.c::smp_init           |
  |-------------------------------|
  | arch/i386/kernel/smpboot.c::  |
  | smp_boot_cpus():              |
  |  [mtrr_init_boot_cpu]         |
  |   smp_store_cpu_info          |
  |   print_cpu_info              |
  |   save CPU ID/APIC ID mappings|
  |   verify_local_APIC           |
  |   connect_bsp_APIC            |
  |   setup_local_APIC            |
  |   foreach valid APIC ID       |
  |     do_boot_cpu(apicid)       |
  |   setup_IO_APIC               |
  |   setup_APIC_clocks           |
  |   synchronize_tsc_bp          |
  +-------------------------------+


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