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3. Creating a Database

Now the Oracle server is installed we need to create a database to test the installation.

If you are using Oracle 7.2.x or earlier, please read the troubleshooting section below.

3.1 Create the Initialisation File

Copy the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init.ora to $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initorcl.ora:


$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
$ cp init.ora initorcl.ora


Modify it by adding the following lines:

db_name = orcl
COMPATIBLE=7.3.3.0.0


3.2 Creating the Database Install Script

Create a script file called makedb.sql in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory:


connect internal
startup nomount
set echo on
spool makedb.log
create database orcl
        maxinstances 1
        maxlogfiles  8
        datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_syst_01.dbf' size 40M reuse
        logfile
                '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_redo_01.dbf' size 1M reuse,
                '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_redo_02.dbf' size 1M reuse,
                '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_redo_03.dbf' size 1M reuse;
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catalog.sql
create tablespace rollback
        datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_roll_01.dbf' size 8.5M reuse;
create tablespace temp
        datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_temp_01.dbf' size 5M reuse 
        temporary;
create tablespace users
        datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_user_01.dbf' size 10M reuse;
create rollback segment r1 tablespace rollback
        storage ( optimal 5M );
alter rollback segment r1 online;
connect system/manager
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catdbsyn.sql
connect internal
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catproc.sql
connect system/manager
@$ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin/pupbld.sql
spool off
exit


3.3 Running the Database Installation Script

Start svrmgrl and run the script:


$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
$ svrmgrl

Oracle Server Manager Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994, 1995. All rights reserved.

Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

SVRMGR> connect internal
Connected.
SVRMGR> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area       4313312 bytes
Fixed Size                       41876 bytes
Variable Size                  4140364 bytes
Database Buffers                122880 bytes
Redo Buffers                      8192 bytes
SVRMGR> @makedb
<loads of messages>
SVRMGR> exit
Server Manager complete.


3.4 Starting the Database

Firstly, we need to bring up the database by hand (we will automate this later on). To startup an Oracle database we need to issue the startup command when connected internally:


$ svrmgrl

Oracle Server Manager Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994, 1995. All rights reserved.

Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

SVRMGR> connect internal
Connected.
SVRMGR> startup
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area       4313316 bytes
Fixed Size                       41876 bytes
Variable Size                  4140368 bytes
Database Buffers                122880 bytes
Redo Buffers                      8192 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SVRMGR> exit
Server Manager complete.


3.5 Stopping the Database

It is worth mentioning here that restarting a Linux server without shutting down the Oracle database first there is a high risk of corrupting the database.

So, before we issue the Linux shutdown command it is wise to bring down the database:


$ svrmgrl

Oracle Server Manager Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994, 1995. All rights reserved.

Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

SVRMGR> connect internal
Connected.
SVRMGR> shutdown
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SVRMGR> exit
Server Manager complete.


3.6 Create a Default User

The database, as created, has a two special users which are automatically created. These are:


Username                Password

SYSTEM                  MANAGER
SYS                     change_on_install


These users are typically used to hold the standard data dictionary information for the database. It is a good idea to change the passwords from the defaults as soon as possible.

This can be achieved by:


sqlplus system/manager

SQL*Plus: Release 3.3.3.0.0 - Production on Sat Feb 21 12:43:33 1998

Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1979, 1996.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release

SQL> alter user system identified by <newpassword>;

User altered.

SQL> alter user sys identified by <newpassword>;

User altered.

SQL> exit;
Disconnected from Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production


Since the user system/manager is similar to using root on a UNIX machine, we need to create a user with less ability to cause damage. (remember to bring up the database before attempting to create a user)

Connect to SQL*Plus and create a user:


$ sqlplus system/manager

SQL*Plus: Release 3.3.3.0.0 - Production on Sat Feb 21 12:43:33 1998

Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1979, 1996.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

SQL> create user <user> identified by <psw> 
  2  default tablespace users 
  3  temporary tablespace temp;

User created.

SQL> grant connect, resource to <user>

Grant succeeded.

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production


Now that you have a new user on the system you can play with the new system. To login to the Oracle database:


$ sqlplus <user>/<password>


If this completes with no error messages then you have a working Oracle database. If you never want to connect to this database from anywhere but this server then the job is complete, enjoy!

If, however, like most people you want to configure the networking software so that you can connect from other machines, keep on reading.


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