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Chapter 15. Setting up the PPP connection files

You now need to be logged in as root to create the directories and edit the files needed to set up PPP, even if you want PPP to be accessible to all users.

PPP uses a number of files to connect and set up a PPP connection. These differ in name and location between PPP 2.1.2 and 2.2+.

For PPP 2.1.2 the files are:-

/usr/sbin/pppd         # the PPP binary
/usr/sbin/ppp-on        # the dialer/connection script
/usr/sbin/ppp-off       # the disconnection script
/etc/ppp/options        # the options pppd uses for all connections
/etc/ppp/options.ttyXX  # the options specific to a connection on this port

For PPP 2.2 the files are:-

/usr/sbin/pppd                 # the PPP binary
/etc/ppp/scripts/ppp-on         # the dialer/connection script
/etc/ppp/scripts/ppp-on-dialer  # part 1 of the dialer script
/etc/ppp/scripts/ppp-off        # the actual chat script itself
/etc/ppp/options                # the options pppd uses for all connections
/etc/ppp/options.ttyXX          # the options specific to a connection on this port

Red Hat Linux users should note that the standard Red Hat 4.X installation places these scripts in /usr/doc/ppp-2.2.0f-2/scripts.

In your /etc directory there should be a ppp directory:-

drwxrwxr-x   2 root     root         1024 Oct  9 11:01 ppp

If it does not exist - create it with these ownerships and permissions.

If the directory already existed, it should contain a template options file called options.tpl. This file is included below in case it does not.

Print it out as it contains an explanation of nearly all the PPP options (these are useful to read in conjunction with the pppd man pages). Whilst you can use this file as the basis of your /etc/ppp/options file, it is probably better to create your own options file that does not include all the comments in the template - it will be much shorter and easier to read/maintain.

If you have multiple serial lines/modems, (typically the case for PPP servers), create a general /etc/ppp/options file containing the options that are common for all the serial ports on which you are supporting dial in/out and set up individual option files for each serial line on which you will be establishing a PPP connection with the individual settings required for each port.

These port specific option files are named options.ttyx1, options.ttyx2 and so forth (where x is the appropriate letter for your serial ports).

However, for a single PPP connection, you can happily use the /etc/ppp/options file. Alternatively, you can put all the options as arguments in the pppd command itself.

It is easier to maintain a setup that uses /etc/ppp/options.ttySx files. If you use PPP to connect to a number of different sites, you can create option files for each site in /etc/ppp/options.site and then specify the option file as a parameter to the PPP command as you connect (using the file option-file pppd option to pppd on the command line).

15.1. The supplied options.tpl file

Some distributions of PPP seem to have lost the options.tpl file, so here is the complete file. I suggest that you do NOT edit this file to create your /etc/ppp/options file(s). Rather, copy this to a new file and then edit that. If you mess up your edits, you can then go back to the original and start again.

# /etc/ppp/options -*- sh -*- general options for pppd
# created 13-Jul-1995 jmk
# autodate: 01-Aug-1995
# autotime: 19:45

# Use the executable or shell command specified to set up the serial
# line.  This script would typically use the "chat" program to dial the
# modem and start the remote ppp session.
#connect "echo You need to install a connect command."

# Run the executable or shell command specified after pppd has
# terminated the link.  This script could, for example, issue commands
# to the modem to cause it to hang up if hardware modem control signals
# were not available.
#disconnect "chat -- \d+++\d\c OK ath0 OK"

# async character map -- 32-bit hex; each bit is a character
# that needs to be escaped for pppd to receive it.  0x00000001
# represents '\x01', and 0x80000000 represents '\x1f'.
#asyncmap 0

# Require the peer to authenticate itself before allowing network
# packets to be sent or received.
#auth

# Use hardware flow control (i.e. RTS/CTS) to control the flow of data
# on the serial port.
#crtscts

# Use software flow control (i.e. XON/XOFF) to control the flow of data
# on the serial port.
#xonxoff

# Add a default route to the system routing tables, using the peer as
# the gateway, when IPCP negotiation is successfully completed.  This
# entry is removed when the PPP connection is broken.
#defaultroute

# Specifies that certain characters should be escaped on transmission
# (regardless of whether the peer requests them to be escaped with its
# async control character map).  The characters to be escaped are
# specified as a list of hex numbers separated by commas.  Note that
# almost any character can be specified for the escape option, unlike
# the asyncmap option which only allows control characters to be
# specified.  The characters which may not be escaped are those with hex
# values 0x20 - 0x3f or 0x5e.
#escape 11,13,ff

# Don't use the modem control lines.
#local

# Specifies that pppd should use a UUCP-style lock on the serial device
# to ensure exclusive access to the device.
#lock

# Use the modem control lines.  On Ultrix, this option implies hardware
# flow control, as for the crtscts option.  (This option is not fully
# implemented.)
#modem

# Set the MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] value to <n> for negotiation.  pppd
# will ask the peer to send packets of no more than <n> bytes. The
# minimum MRU value is 128.  The default MRU value is 1500.  A value of
# 296 is recommended for slow links (40 bytes for TCP/IP header + 256
# bytes of data).
#mru 542

# Set the interface netmask to <n>, a 32 bit netmask in "decimal dot"
# notation (e.g. 255.255.255.0).
#netmask 255.255.255.0

# Disables the default behaviour when no local IP address is specified,
# which is to determine (if possible) the local IP address from the
# hostname. With this option, the peer will have to supply the local IP
# address during IPCP negotiation (unless it specified explicitly on the
# command line or in an options file).
#noipdefault

# Enables the "passive" option in the LCP.  With this option, pppd will
# attempt to initiate a connection; if no reply is received from the
# peer, pppd will then just wait passively for a valid LCP packet from
# the peer (instead of exiting, as it does without this option).
#passive

# With this option, pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate a
# connection until a valid LCP packet is received from the peer (as for
# the "passive" option with old versions of pppd).
#silent

# Don't request or allow negotiation of any options for LCP and IPCP
# (use default values).
#-all

# Disable Address/Control compression negotiation (use default, i.e.
# address/control field disabled).
#-ac

# Disable asyncmap negotiation (use the default asyncmap, i.e. escape
# all control characters).
#-am

# Don't fork to become a background process (otherwise pppd will do so
# if a serial device is specified).
#-detach

# Disable IP address negotiation (with this option, the remote IP
# address must be specified with an option on the command line or in an
# options file).
#-ip

# Disable magic number negotiation.  With this option, pppd cannot
# detect a looped-back line.
#-mn

# Disable MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] negotiation (use default, i.e.
# 1500).
#-mru

# Disable protocol field compression negotiation (use default, i.e.
# protocol field compression disabled).
#-pc

# Require the peer to authenticate itself using PAP.
# This requires TWO WAY authentication - do NOT use this for a standard
# PAP authenticated link to an ISP as this will require the ISP machine
# to authenticate itself to your machine (and it will not be able to).
#+pap

# Don't agree to authenticate using PAP.
#-pap

# Require the peer to authenticate itself using CHAP [Cryptographic
# Handshake Authentication Protocol] authentication.
# This requires TWO WAY authentication - do NOT use this for a standard
# CHAP authenticated link to an ISP as this will require the ISP machine
# to authenticate itself to your machine (and it will not be able to).
#+chap

# Don't agree to authenticate using CHAP.
#-chap

# Disable negotiation of Van Jacobson style IP header compression (use
# default, i.e. no compression).
#-vj

# Increase debugging level (same as -d).  If this option is given, pppd
# will log the contents of all control packets sent or received in a
# readable form.  The packets are logged through syslog with facility
# daemon and level debug. This information can be directed to a file by
# setting up /etc/syslog.conf appropriately (see syslog.conf(5)).  (If
# pppd is compiled with extra debugging enabled, it will log messages
# using facility local2 instead of daemon).
#debug

# Append the domain name <d> to the local host name for authentication
# purposes.  For example, if gethostname() returns the name porsche,
# but the fully qualified domain name is porsche.Quotron.COM, you would
# use the domain option to set the domain name to Quotron.COM.
#domain <d>

# Enable debugging code in the kernel-level PPP driver.  The argument n
# is a number which is the sum of the following values: 1 to enable
# general debug messages, 2 to request that the contents of received
# packets be printed, and 4 to request that the contents of transmitted
# packets be printed.
#kdebug n

# Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value to <n>. Unless the peer
# requests a smaller value via MRU negotiation, pppd will request that
# the kernel networking code send data packets of no more than n bytes
# through the PPP network interface.
#mtu <n>

# Set the name of the local system for authentication purposes to <n>.
# This will probably have to be set to your ISP user name if you are
# using PAP/CHAP.
#name <n>

# Set the user name to use for authenticating this machine with the peer
# using PAP to <u>.
# Do NOT use this if you are using 'name' above!
#user <u>

# Enforce the use of the host name as the name of the local system for
# authentication purposes (overrides the name option).
#usehostname

# Set the assumed name of the remote system for authentication purposes
# to <n>.
#remotename <n>

# Add an entry to this system's ARP [Address Resolution Protocol]
# table with the IP address of the peer and the Ethernet address of this
# system.
#proxyarp

# Use the system password database for authenticating the peer using
# PAP.
#login

# If this option is given, pppd will send an LCP echo-request frame to
# the peer every n seconds. Under Linux, the echo-request is sent when
# no packets have been received from the peer for n seconds. Normally
# the peer should respond to the echo-request by sending an echo-reply.
# This option can be used with the lcp-echo-failure option to detect
# that the peer is no longer connected.
#lcp-echo-interval <n>

# If this option is given, pppd will presume the peer to be dead if n
# LCP echo-requests are sent without receiving a valid LCP echo-reply.
# If this happens, pppd will terminate the connection.  Use of this
# option requires a non-zero value for the lcp-echo-interval parameter.
# This option can be used to enable pppd to terminate after the physical
# connection has been broken (e.g., the modem has hung up) in
# situations where no hardware modem control lines are available.
#lcp-echo-failure <n>

# Set the LCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to <n> seconds
# (default 3).
#lcp-restart <n>

# Set the maximum number of LCP terminate-request transmissions to <n>
# (default 3).
#lcp-max-terminate <n>

# Set the maximum number of LCP configure-request transmissions to <n>
# (default 10).
# Some PPP servers are slow to start up. You may need to increase this
# if you keep getting 'serial line looped back' errors and your are SURE
# that you have logged in correctly and PPP should be starting on the server.
#lcp-max-configure <n>

# Set the maximum number of LCP configure-NAKs returned before starting
# to send configure-Rejects instead to <n> (default 10).
#lcp-max-failure <n>

# Set the IPCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to <n>
# seconds (default 3).
#ipcp-restart <n>

# Set the maximum number of IPCP terminate-request transmissions to <n>
# (default 3).
#ipcp-max-terminate <n>

# Set the maximum number of IPCP configure-request transmissions to <n>
# (default 10).
#ipcp-max-configure <n>

# Set the maximum number of IPCP configure-NAKs returned before starting
# to send configure-Rejects instead to <n> (default 10).
#ipcp-max-failure <n>

# Set the PAP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to <n> seconds
# (default 3).
#pap-restart <n>

# Set the maximum number of PAP authenticate-request transmissions to
# <n> (default 10).
#pap-max-authreq <n>

# Set the CHAP restart interval (retransmission timeout for
# challenges) to <n> seconds (default 3).
#chap-restart <n>

# Set the maximum number of CHAP challenge transmissions to <n>
# (default 10).
#chap-max-challenge

# If this option is given, pppd will re-challenge the peer every <n>
# seconds.
#chap-interval <n>

# With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our local IP
# address, even if the local IP address was specified in an option.
#ipcp-accept-local

# With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of its (remote) IP
# address, even if the remote IP address was specified in an option.
#ipcp-accept-remote