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7.7. Configure Safely and Use Safe Defaults

Configuration is considered to currently be the number one security problem. Therefore, you should spend some effort to (1) make the initial installation secure, and (2) make it easy to reconfigure the system while keeping it secure.

Never have the installation routines install a working ``default'' password. If you need to install new ``users'', that's fine - just set them up with an impossible password, leaving time for administrators to set the password (and leaving the system secure before the password is set). Administrators will probably install hundreds of packages and almost certainly forget to set the password - it's likely they won't even know to set it, if you create a default password.

A program should have the most restrictive access policy until the administrator has a chance to configure it. Please don't create ``sample'' working users or ``allow access to all'' configurations as the starting configuration; many users just ``install everything'' (installing all available services) and never get around to configuring many services. In some cases the program may be able to determine that a more generous policy is reasonable by depending on the existing authentication system, for example, an ftp server could legitimately determine that a user who can log into a user's directory should be allowed to access that user's files. Be careful with such assumptions, however.

Have installation scripts install a program as safely as possible. By default, install all files as owned by root or some other system user and make them unwriteable by others; this prevents non-root users from installing viruses. Indeed, it's best to make them unreadable by all but the trusted user. Allow non-root installation where possible as well, so that users without root privileges and administrators who do not fully trust the installer can still use the program.

When installing, check to make sure that any assumptions necessary for security are true. Some library routines are not safe on some platforms; see the discussion of this in Section 8.1. If you know which platforms your application will run on, you need not check their specific attributes, but in that case you should check to make sure that the program is being installed on only one of those platforms. Otherwise, you should require a manual override to install the program, because you don't know if the result will be secure.

Try to make configuration as easy and clear as possible, including post-installation configuration. Make using the ``secure'' approach as easy as possible, or many users will use an insecure approach without understanding the risks. On Linux, take advantage of tools like linuxconf, so that users can easily configure their system using an existing infrastructure.

If there's a configuration language, the default should be to deny access until the user specifically grants it. Include many clear comments in the sample configuration file, if there is one, so the administrator understands what the configuration does.