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1. Introduction

This is the Linux Sound HOWTO. It is intended as a quick reference covering everything you need to know to install and configure sound support under Linux. Frequently asked questions about sound under Linux are answered, and references are given to some other sources of information on a variety of topics related to computer generated sound and music.

The scope is limited to the aspects of sound cards pertaining to Linux. See the other documents listed in the References section for more general information on sound cards and computer sound and music generation.

1.1. Acknowledgments

Much of this information came from the documentation provided with the sound driver source code, by Hannu Savolainen (hannu@opensound.com). Thanks go to Hannu, Alan Cox, and the many other people who developed the Linux kernel sound drivers and utilities.

Thanks to the DocBook tools, this HOWTO is available in several formats, all generated from a common source file.

1.2. New versions of this document

New versions of this document will be periodically posted to the comp.os.linux.answers newsgroup. Hypertext versions of this and other Linux HOWTOs are available on many world-wide web sites, including http://www.linuxdoc.org. Most Linux CD-ROM distributions include the HOWTOs, often under the /usr/doc directory, and you can also buy printed copies from several vendors. Sometimes the HOWTOs available from CD-ROM vendors, ftp sites, and printed format are out of date. If the date on this HOWTO is more than six months in the past, then a newer copy is probably available on the Internet.

Please note that, due to the dynamic nature of the Internet, all web and ftp links listed in this document are subject to change.

Translations of this document are available in several languages:

Chinese: http://www.linux.org.tw/CLDP/Sound-HOWTO.html

French: http://www.freenix.org/unix/linux/HOWTO/

Italian: http://www.pluto.linux.it/ildp/HOWTO/index.html

Japanese: http://yebisu.ics.es.osaka-u.ac.jp/linux/

Korean: http://kldp.org/HOWTO/html/Sound/Sound-HOWTO.html

Russian: http://www.phtd.tpu.edu.ru/~ott/russian/linux/howto-rus/Sound-HOWTO.html

Spanish: ftp://ftp.insflug.org/es

Most translations of this and other Linux HOWTOs can also be found at http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/. If you make a translation of this document into another language, let me know and I'll include a reference to it here.

1.3. Feedback

I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. If you have any suggestions, corrections, or comments, please send them to me, tranter@pobox.com, and I will try to incorporate them in the next revision.

I am also willing to answer general questions on sound cards under Linux, as best I can. Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and send me detailed information about the problem. Please do not ask me about using sound cards under operating systems other than Linux.

If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the LDP at feedback@linuxdoc.org for more information.

1.4. Distribution Policy

Copyright (c) 1995-2001 by Jeff Tranter. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available at http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html