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2. Overview of Concepts

This section will introduce traffic control and examine reasons for it, identify a few advantages and disadvantages and introduce key concepts used in traffic control.

2.1. What is it?

Traffic control is the name given to the sets of queuing systems and mechanisms by which packets are received and transmitted on a router. This includes deciding which (and whether) packets to accept at what rate on the input of an interface and determining which packets to transmit in what order at what rate on the output of an interface.

In the overwhelming majority of situations, traffic control consists of a single queue which collects entering packets and dequeues them as quickly as the hardware (or underlying device) can accept them. This sort of queue is a FIFO.

Note The default qdisc under Linux is the pfifo_fast, which is slightly more complex than the FIFO.

There are examples of queues in all sorts of software. The queue is a way of organizing the pending tasks or data (see also Section 2.5). Because network links typically carry data in a serialized fashion, a queue is required to manage the outbound data packets.

In the case of a desktop machine and an efficient webserver sharing the same uplink to the Internet, the following contention for bandwidth may occur. The web server may be able to fill up the output queue on the router faster than the data can be transmitted across the link, at which point the router starts to drop packets (its buffer is full!). Now, the desktop machine (with an interactive application user) may be faced with packet loss and high latency. Note that high latency sometimes leads to screaming users! By separating the internal queues used to service these two different classes of application, there can be better sharing of the network resource between the two applications.

Traffic control is the set of tools which allows the user to have granular control over these queues and the queuing mechanisms of a networked device. The power to rearrange traffic flows and packets with these tools is tremendous and can be complicated, but is no substitute for adequate bandwidth.

The term Quality of Service (QoS) is often used as a synonym for traffic control.

2.2. Why use it?

Packet-switched networks differ from circuit based networks in one very important regard. A packet-switched network itself is stateless. A circuit-based network (such as a telephone network) must hold state within the network. IP networks are stateless and packet-switched networks by design; in fact, this statelessness is one of the fundamental strengths of IP.

The weakness of this statelessness is the lack of differentiation between types of flows. In simplest terms, traffic control allows an administrator to queue packets differently based on attributes of the packet. It can even be used to simulate the behaviour of a circuit-based network. This introduces statefulness into the stateless network.

There are many practical reasons to consider traffic control, and many scenarios in which using traffic control makes sense. Below are some examples of common problems which can be solved or at least ameliorated with these tools.

The list below is not an exhaustive list of the sorts of solutions available to users of traffic control, but introduces the types of problems that can be solved by using traffic control to maximize the usability of a network connection.

Common traffic control solutions

  • Limit total bandwidth to a known rate; TBF, HTB with child class(es).

  • Limit the bandwidth of a particular user, service or client; HTB classes and classifying with a filter. traffic.

  • Maximize TCP throughput on an asymmetric link; prioritize transmission of ACK packets, wondershaper.

  • Reserve bandwidth for a particular application or user; HTB with children classes and classifying.

  • Prefer latency sensitive traffic; PRIO inside an HTB class.

  • Managed oversubscribed bandwidth; HTB with borrowing.

  • Allow equitable distribution of unreserved bandwidth; HTB with borrowing.

  • Ensure that a particular type of traffic is dropped; policer attached to a filter with a drop action.

Remember, too that sometimes, it is simply better to purchase more bandwidth. Traffic control does not solve all problems!

2.3. Advantages

When properly employed, traffic control should lead to more predictable usage of network resources and less volatile contention for these resources. The network then meets the goals of the traffic control configuration. Bulk download traffic can be allocated a reasonable amount of bandwidth even as higher priority interactive traffic is simultaneously serviced. Even low priority data transfer such as mail can be allocated bandwidth without tremendously affecting the other classes of traffic.

In a larger picture, if the traffic control configuration represents policy which has been communicated to the users, then users (and, by extension, applications) know what to expect from the network.

2.4. Disdvantages

Complexity is easily one of the most significant disadvantages of using traffic control. There are ways to become familiar with traffic control tools which ease the learning curve about traffic control and its mechanisms, but identifying a traffic control misconfiguration can be quite a challenge.

Traffic control when used appropriately can lead to more equitable distribution of network resources. It can just as easily be installed in an inappropriate manner leading to further and more divisive contention for resources.

The computing resources required on a router to support a traffic control scenario need to be capable of handling the increased cost of maintaining the traffic control structures. Fortunately, this is a small incremental cost, but can become more significant as the configuration grows in size and complexity.

For personal use, there's no training cost associated with the use of traffic control, but a company may find that purchasing more bandwidth is a simpler solution than employing traffic control. Training employees and ensuring depth of knowledge may be more costly than investing in more bandwidth.

Although traffic control on packet-switched networks covers a larger conceptual area, you can think of traffic control as a way to provide [some of] the statefulness of a circuit-based network to a packet-switched network.

2.5. Queues

Queues form the backdrop for all of traffic control and are the integral concept behind scheduling. A queue is a location (or buffer) containing a finite number of items waiting for an action or service. In networking, a queue is the place where packets (our units) wait to be transmitted by the hardware (the service). In the simplest model, packets are transmitted in a first-come first-serve basis [1]. In the discipline of computer networking (and more generally computer science), this sort of a queue is known as a FIFO.

Without any other mechanisms, a queue doesn't offer any promise for traffic control. There are only two interesting actions in a queue. Anything entering a queue is enqueued into the queue. To remove an item from a queue is to dequeue that item.

A queue becomes much more interesting when coupled with other mechanisms which can delay packets, rearrange, drop and prioritize packets in multiple queues. A queue can also use subqueues, which allow for complexity of behaviour in a scheduling operation.

From the perspective of the higher layer software, a packet is simply enqueued for transmission, and the manner and order in which the enqueued packets are transmitted is immaterial to the higher layer. So, to the higher layer, the entire traffic control system may appear as a single queue [2]. It is only by examining the internals of this layer that the traffic control structures become exposed and available.

2.6. Flows

A flow is a distinct connection or conversation between two hosts. Any unique set of packets between two hosts can be regarded as a flow. Under TCP the concept of a connection with a source IP and port and destination IP and port represents a flow. A UDP flow can be similarly defined.

Traffic control mechanisms frequently separate traffic into classes of flows which can be aggregated and transmitted as an aggregated flow (consider DiffServ). Alternate mechanisms may attempt to divide bandwidth equally based on the individual flows.

Flows become important when attempting to divide bandwidth equally among a set of competing flows, especially when some applications deliberately build a large number of flows.

2.7. Tokens and buckets

Two of the key underpinnings of a shaping mechanisms are the interrelated concepts of tokens and buckets.

In order to control the rate of dequeuing, an implementation can count the number of packets or bytes dequeued as each item is dequeued, although this requires complex usage of timers and measurements to limit accurately. Instead of calculating the current usage and time, one method, used widely in traffic control, is to generate tokens at a desired rate, and only dequeue packets or bytes if a token is available.

Consider the analogy of an amusement park ride with a queue of people waiting to experience the ride. Let's imagine a track on which carts traverse a fixed track. The carts arrive at the head of the queue at a fixed rate. In order to enjoy the ride, each person must wait for an available cart. The cart is analogous to a token and the person is analogous to a packet. Again, this mechanism is a rate-limiting or shaping mechanism. Only a certain number of people can experience the ride in a particular period.

To extend the analogy, imagine an empty line for the amusement park ride and a large number of carts sitting on the track ready to carry people. If a large number of people entered the line together many (maybe all) of them could experience the ride because of the carts available and waiting. The number of carts available is a concept analogous to the bucket. A bucket contains a number of tokens and can use all of the tokens in bucket without regard for passage of time.

And to complete the analogy, the carts on the amusement park ride (our tokens) arrive at a fixed rate and are only kept available up to the size of the bucket. So, the bucket is filled with tokens according to the rate, and if the tokens are not used, the bucket can fill up. If tokens are used the bucket will not fill up. Buckets are a key concept in supporting bursty traffic such as HTTP.

The TBF qdisc is a classical example of a shaper (the section on TBF includes a diagram which may help to visualize the token and bucket concepts). The TBF generates rate tokens and only transmits packets when a token is available. Tokens are a generic shaping concept.

In the case that a queue does not need tokens immediately, the tokens can be collected until they are needed. To collect tokens indefinitely would negate any benefit of shaping so tokens are collected until a certain number of tokens has been reached. Now, the queue has tokens available for a large number of packets or bytes which need to be dequeued. These intangible tokens are stored in an intangible bucket, and the number of tokens that can be stored depends on the size of the bucket.

This also means that a bucket full of tokens may be available at any instant. Very predictable regular traffic can be handled by small buckets. Larger buckets may be required for burstier traffic, unless one of the desired goals is to reduce the burstiness of the flows.

In summary, tokens are generated at rate, and a maximum of a bucket's worth of tokens may be collected. This allows bursty traffic to be handled, while smoothing and shaping the transmitted traffic.

The concepts of tokens and buckets are closely interrelated and are used in both TBF (one of the classless qdiscs) and HTB (one of the classful qdiscs). Within the tcng language, the use of two- and three-color meters is indubitably a token and bucket concept.

2.8. Packets and frames

The terms for data sent across network changes depending on the layer the user is examining. This document will rather impolitely (and incorrectly) gloss over the technical distinction between packets and frames although they are outlined here.

The word frame is typically used to describe a layer 2 (data link) unit of data to be forwarded to the next recipient. Ethernet interfaces, PPP interfaces, and T1 interfaces all name their layer 2 data unit a frame. The frame is actually the unit on which traffic control is performed.

A packet, on the other hand, is a higher layer concept, representing layer 3 (network) units. The term packet is preferred in this documentation, although it is slightly inaccurate.

Notes

[1]

This queueing model has long been used in civilized countries to distribute scant food or provisions equitably. William Faulkner is reputed to have walked to the front of the line for to fetch his share of ice, proving that not everybody likes the FIFO model, and providing us a model for considering priority queuing.

[2]

Similarly, the entire traffic control system appears as a queue or scheduler to the higher layer which is enqueuing packets into this layer.