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4. Shell Scripts

4.1 Virtfs

Each domain should get their own directory structure. Since you are using chroot you will require duplicate copies of the shared libraries, binaries, conf files, etc. I use /virtual/domain1.com for each domain that I create.

I realize that you are taking up more disk space but it is cheaper than a whole new machine and network cards. If you really want to preserve space you can hard link the files together so only one copy of each binary exists. The filesystem that I use takes up a little over 2M. However, this script attempts to copy all the files from the main filesystem in order to be as generic as possible.

Here is a sample virtfs script:

#!/bin/sh

echo '$Revision: 1.49 $'

echo -n "Enter the domain name: "
read domain

if [ "$domain" = "" ]
then
        echo Nothing entered: aborting
        exit 0
fi

leadingdir=/virtual

echo -n "Enter leading dir: (Enter for default: $leadingdir): "
read ans

if [ "$ans" != "" ]
then
        leadingdir=$ans
fi 

newdir=$leadingdir/$domain

if [ -d "$newdir" ]
then
        echo New directory: $newdir: ALREADY exists
        exit 0
else
        echo New directory: $newdir
fi

echo Create $newdir
mkdir -p $newdir

echo Create bin
cp -pdR /bin $newdir

echo Create dev
cp -pdR /dev $newdir

echo Create dev/log
ln -f /virtual/log $newdir/dev/log

echo Create etc
mkdir -p $newdir/etc
for i in /etc/* 
do 
        if [ -d "$i" ]
        then 
                continue
        fi
        cp -pd $i $newdir/etc
done

echo Create etc/skel
mkdir -p $newdir/etc/skel

echo Create home
for i in a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 
do 
        mkdir -p $newdir/home/$i
done

echo Create home/c/crc
mkdir -p $newdir/home/c/crc
chown crc.users $newdir/home/c/crc

echo Create lib
mkdir -p $newdir/lib
for i in /lib/* 
do 
        if [ -d "$i" ]
        then 
                continue
        fi
        cp -pd $i $newdir/lib
done

echo Create proc
mkdir -p $newdir/proc

echo Create sbin
cp -pdR /sbin $newdir

echo Create tmp
mkdir -p -m 0777 $newdir/tmp
chmod +t $newdir/tmp

echo Create usr
mkdir -p $newdir/usr

echo Create usr/bin
cp -pdR /usr/bin $newdir/usr

echo Create usr/lib
mkdir -p $newdir/usr/lib

echo Create usr/lib/locale
cp -pdR /usr/lib/locale $newdir/usr/lib

echo Create usr/lib/terminfo
cp -pdR /usr/lib/terminfo $newdir/usr/lib

echo Create usr/lib/zoneinfo
cp -pdR /usr/lib/zoneinfo $newdir/usr/lib

echo Create usr/lib/\*.so\*
cp -pdR /usr/lib/*.so* $newdir/usr/lib

echo Create usr/sbin
cp -pdR /usr/sbin $newdir/usr

echo Linking usr/tmp
ln -s /tmp $newdir/usr/tmp

echo Create var
mkdir -p $newdir/var

echo Create var/lock
cp -pdR /var/lock $newdir/var

echo Create var/log
mkdir -p $newdir/var/log

echo Create var/log/wtmp
cp /dev/null $newdir/var/log/wtmp

echo Create var/run
cp -pdR /var/run $newdir/var

echo Create var/run/utmp
cp /dev/null $newdir/var/run/utmp

echo Create var/spool
cp -pdR /var/spool $newdir/var

echo Linking var/tmp
ln -s /tmp $newdir/var/tmp 

echo Create var/www/html
mkdir -p $newdir/var/www/html
chown webmast.www $newdir/var/www/html
chmod g+s $newdir/var/www/html

echo Create var/www/master
mkdir -p $newdir/var/www/master
chown webmast.www $newdir/var/www/master

echo Create var/www/server
mkdir -p $newdir/var/www/server
chown webmast.www $newdir/var/www/server

exit 0

4.2 Virtexec

To execute commands in a virtual environment you have to chroot to that directory and then run the command. I have written a special shell script called virtexec that handles this for any command:

#!/bin/sh

echo '$Revision: 1.49 $'

BNAME=`basename $0`
FIRST4CHAR=`echo $BNAME | cut -c1-4`
REALBNAME=`echo $BNAME | cut -c5-`

if [ "$BNAME" = "virtexec" ]
then
        echo Cannot run virtexec directly: NEED a symlink
        exit 0
fi

if [ "$FIRST4CHAR" != "virt" ]
then
        echo Symlink not a virt function
        exit 0
fi

list=""
num=1
for i in /virtual/*
do
        if [ ! -d "$i" ]
        then
                continue
        fi
        if [ "$i" = "/virtual/lost+found" ]
        then
                continue
        fi
        list="$list $i $num"
        num=`expr $num + 1`
done

if [ "$list" = "" ]
then
        echo No virtual environments exist
        exit 0
fi

dialog --clear --title 'Virtexec' --menu Pick 20 70 12 $list 2> /tmp/menu.$$
if [ "$?" = "0" ]
then
        newdir=`cat /tmp/menu.$$`
else
        newdir=""
fi
tput clear
rm -f /tmp/menu.$$

echo '$Revision: 1.49 $'

if [ ! -d "$newdir" ]
then
        echo New directory: $newdir: NOT EXIST
        exit 0
else
        echo New directory: $newdir
fi

echo bname: $BNAME

echo realbname: $REALBNAME

if [ "$*" = "" ]
then
        echo args: none
else
        echo args: $*
fi

echo Changing to $newdir
cd $newdir

echo Running program $REALBNAME

chroot $newdir $REALBNAME $*

exit 0

Please note that you must have the dialog program installed on your system for this to work. To use virtexec just symlink a program to it. For example,

ln -s /usr/local/bin/virtexec /usr/local/bin/virtpasswd
ln -s /usr/local/bin/virtexec /usr/local/bin/virtvi
ln -s /usr/local/bin/virtexec /usr/local/bin/virtpico
ln -s /usr/local/bin/virtexec /usr/local/bin/virtemacs
ln -s /usr/local/bin/virtexec /usr/local/bin/virtmailq

Then if you type virtvi or virtpasswd or virtmailq it will allow you to vi a program, change a user's password or check the mail queue on your virtual system. You can create as many virtexec symlinks as you want. Please note that if your program requires a shared library it has to be in the virtual filesystem as well as the binary.

4.3 Notes

I install all the scripts in /usr/local/bin. Anything that I do not want to put on the virtual filesystem I put in /usr/local. The script does not copy any of the files in /usr/local to the virtual filesystem. Any files that are important to not cross virtual filesystems should be removed. For example, ssh is installed on my system and I did not want the private key for the server available on all the virtual filesystems so I remove it from each virtual filesystem after I run virtfs. I also change resolv.conf and remove anything that has the name of another domain on it for legal reasons. For example, /etc/hosts and /etc/HOSTNAME.

The programs that I symlink to virtexec are:


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