Apache has their own support for virtual domains. This is the only program I recommend using the internal virtual domain mechanism. When you run something through inetd there is a cost, the program has to start up each time you run it. This results in slower response time, which is perfectly fine for most services but is completely unacceptable for web service. Apache also has a mechanism for stopping connections when too many come in, which can be critical for even medium volume sites.
Simply stated, virtualizing Apache with virtuald is a really bad idea. The whole point of virtuald is to fill the gap created when services DO NOT have their own internal mechanism to do the job. Virtuald is not meant to replace good code that already completes the task at hand.
The above not withstanding here is how to do it for those who are foolhardy enough to do so.
vi /etc/inetd.conf # Add this line www stream tcp nowait www /usr/local/bin/virtuald \ virtuald /virtual/conf.www httpd -f /var/www/conf/httpd.conf
vi /var/www/conf/httpd.conf # Or wherever you put the Apache config files It should say: ServerType standalone Replace it with: ServerType inetd
Then configure each instance of the Apache server like you would normally for single domain use.
An httpd.init file is not needed since the server is run through inetd.
Apache has three configuration files
httpd.conf , and
srm.conf . Newer versions of Apache have made the three configuration files unnecessary. However, I find that breaking up the configuration into three sections makes it easier to manage so I will be keeping with that style in this HOWTO document.
This configuration file is used to control the accessibility of directories in the web directory structure. Here is a sample configuration file that shows how to have different options for each domain.
# /var/www/conf/access.conf: Global access configuration # Options are inherited from the parent directory # Set the main directory with default options <Directory /> AllowOverride None Options Indexes </Directory> # Give one domain a passwd protected directory <Directory /virtual/domain1.com/var/www/html/priv> AuthUserFile /var/www/passwd/domain1.com-priv AuthGroupFile /var/www/passwd/domain1.com-priv-g AuthName PRIVSECTION AuthType Basic <Limit GET PUT POST> require valid-user </Limit> </Directory> # Give another domain Server Side Includes <Directory /virtual/domain2.com/var/www/html> Options IncludesNOEXEC </Directory>
This configuration file is used to control the main options for the Apache server. Here is a sample configuration file that shows how to have different options for each domain.
# /var/www/conf/httpd.conf: Main server configuration file # Begin: main conf section # Needed since not using inetd ServerType standalone # Port to run on Port 80 # Log clients with names vs IP addresses HostnameLookups on # User to run server as User www Group www # Where server config, error and log files are ServerRoot /var/www # Process Id of server in this file PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid # Internal server process info ScoreBoardFile /var/www/logs/apache_status # Timeout and KeepAlive options Timeout 400 KeepAlive 5 KeepAliveTimeout 15 # Number of servers to run MinSpareServers 5 MaxSpareServers 10 StartServers 5 MaxClients 150 MaxRequestsPerChild 30 # End: main conf section # Begin: virtual host section # Tell server to accept requests for ip:port # I have one for each IP needed so you can explicitly ignore certain domains Listen 10.10.10.129:80 Listen 10.10.10.130:80 # VirtualHost directive allows you to specify another virtual # domain on your server. Most Apache options can be specified # within this section. <VirtualHost www.domain1.com> # Mail to this address on errors ServerAdmin email@example.com # Where documents are kept in the virtual domain DocumentRoot /virtual/domain1.com/var/www/html # Name of the server ServerName www.domain1.com # Log files Relative to ServerRoot option ErrorLog logs/domain1.com-error_log TransferLog logs/domain1.com-access_log RefererLog logs/domain1.com-referer_log AgentLog logs/domain1.com-agent_log # Use CGI scripts in this domain ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/cgi-bin/domain1.com/ AddHandler cgi-script .cgi AddHandler cgi-script .pl </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost www.domain2.com> # Mail to this address on errors ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org # Where documents are kept in the virtual domain DocumentRoot /virtual/domain2.com/var/www/html # Name of the server ServerName www.domain2.com # Log files Relative to ServerRoot option ErrorLog logs/domain2.com-error_log TransferLog logs/domain2.com-access_log RefererLog logs/domain2.com-referer_log AgentLog logs/domain2.com-agent_log # No CGI's for this host </VirtualHost> # End: virtual host section
This configuration file is used to control how requests are serviced and how results are formatted. You do not have to edit anything here for the virtual domains. The sample config file from Apache should work.
Nothing special has to be done to the httpd.init file. Use a standard one that comes with the Apache configuration.
This only applies to the standalone style Apache server. A server run through inetd does not interact with the other domains so it has the whole file descriptor table.
Every log file that the Apache server opens is another file descriptor for the process. There is a limit of 256 file descriptors per process in Linux. Since you have multiple domains you are using a lot more file descriptors. If you have too many domains running off of one Apache web server process you can overflow this table. This would mean that certain logs would not work and CGI's would fail.
If you assume five file descriptors per domain you can have 50 domains running on your Apache server without any problems. However, if you find your server having problems like this you could create /var/www1 with an Apache server in charge of domain1 - domain25 and /var/www2 with an Apache server in charge of domain26 - domain50 and so on. This would give each server their own configuration, error, and log directory. Each server should be configured separately with their own Listen and VirtualHost directives. Do not forget to run multiple servers in your httpd.init file.
The HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) version 1.1 added a feature that communicates the name of the server to the client. This means that the client does not need to look up the server from its IP address. Therefore, two virtual servers could have the same IP address and be different web sites. The Apache configuration is the same as above except that you do not have to put in a different Listen directive since the two domains will have the same IP.
The only problem is that virtuald uses IP addresses to distinguish between domains. In its current form virtuald would not be able to
chroot to different spool directories for each domain. Therefore, mail would only be able to respond as one IP and there would no longer be a unique spool directory for each domain. All the web sharing IP clients would have to share that IPs spool directory. That would mean duplicate usernames would be an issue again. However, that is the price you pay for sharing IPs.
This HOWTO only shows how to implement virtual support on the Apache web server. Most web servers use a similar interface. For more information on virtual web hosting consult the WWW HOWTO, the documentation for Apache at Apache's Site, or the documentation at ApacheWeek.