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5. Files and Filesystem Security

A few minutes of preparation and planning ahead before putting your systems online can help to protect them and the data stored on them.

5.1 Umask Settings

The umask command can be used to determine the default file creation mode on your system. It is the octal complement of the desired file mode. If files are created without any regard to their permissions settings, the user could inadvertently give read or write permission to someone that should not have this permission. Typical umask settings include 022, 027, and 077 (which is the most restrictive). Normally the umask is set in /etc/profile, so it applies to all users on the system. The file creation mask can be calculated by subtracting the desired value from 777. In other words, a umask of 777 would cause newly-created files to contain no read, write or execute permission for anyone. A mask of 666 would cause newly-created files to have a mask of 111. For example, you may have a line that looks like this:

                # Set the user's default umask
                umask 033
Be sure to make root's umask 077, which will disable read, write, and execute permission for other users, unless explicitly changed using chmod. In this case, newly-created directories would have 744 permissions, obtained by subtracting 033 from 777. Newly-created files using the 033 umask would have permissions of 644.

If you are using Red Hat, and adhere to their user and group ID creation scheme (User Private Groups), it is only necessary to use 002 for a umask. This is due to the fact that the default configuration is one user per group.

5.2 File Permissions

It's important to ensure that your system files are not open for casual editing by users and groups who shouldn't be doing such system maintenance.

Unix separates access control on files and directories according to three characteristics: owner, group, and other. There is always exactly one owner, any number of members of the group, and everyone else.

A quick explanation of Unix permissions:

Ownership - Which user(s) and group(s) retain(s) control of the permission settings of the node and parent of the node

Permissions - Bits capable of being set or reset to allow certain types of access to it. Permissions for directories may have a different meaning than the same set of permissions on files.




Save Text Attribute: (For directories)

The "sticky bit" also has a different meaning when applied to directories than when applied to files. If the sticky bit is set on a directory, then a user may only delete files that the he owns or for which he has explicit write permission granted, even when he has write access to the directory. This is designed for directories like /tmp, which are world-writable, but where it may not be desirable to allow any user to delete files at will. The sticky bit is seen as a t in a long directory listing.

SUID Attribute: (For Files)

This describes set-user-id permissions on the file. When the set user ID access mode is set in the owner permissions, and the file is executable, processes which run it are granted access to system resources based on user who owns the file, as opposed to the user who created the process. This is the cause of many "buffer overflow" exploits.

SGID Attribute: (For Files)

If set in the group permissions, this bit controls the "set group id" status of a file. This behaves the same way as SUID, except the group is affected instead. The file must be executable for this to have any effect.

SGID Attribute: (For directories)

If you set the SGID bit on a directory (with chmod g+s directory), files created in that directory will have their group set to the directory's group.

You - The owner of the file

Group - The group you belong to

Everyone - Anyone on the system that is not the owner or a member of the group

File Example:

        -rw-r--r--  1 kevin  users         114 Aug 28  1997 .zlogin
        1st bit - directory?             (no)
         2nd bit - read by owner?         (yes, by kevin)
          3rd bit - write by owner?        (yes, by kevin)
           4th bit - execute by owner?      (no)
            5th bit - read by group?         (yes, by users)
             6th bit - write by group?        (no)
              7th bit - execute by group?      (no)
               8th bit - read by everyone?      (yes, by everyone)
                9th bit - write by everyone?     (no)
                 10th bit - execute by everyone?  (no)

The following lines are examples of the minimum sets of permissions that are required to perform the access described. You may want to give more permission than what's listed here, but this should describe what these minimum permissions on files do:

-r--------  Allow read access to the file by owner
--w-------  Allows the owner to modify or delete the file
            (Note that anyone with write permission to the directory
             the file is in can overwrite it and thus delete it)
---x------  The owner can execute this program, but not shell scripts, 
             which still need read permission
---s------  Will execute with effective User ID = to owner
--------s-  Will execute with effective Group ID = to group
-rw------T  No update of "last modified time".  Usually used for swap
---t------  No effect.  (formerly sticky bit)
Directory Example:

        drwxr-xr-x  3 kevin  users         512 Sep 19 13:47 .public_html/
        1st bit - directory?             (yes, it contains many files)
         2nd bit - read by owner?         (yes, by kevin)
          3rd bit - write by owner?        (yes, by kevin)
           4th bit - execute by owner?      (yes, by kevin)
            5th bit - read by group?         (yes, by users
             6th bit - write by group?        (no)
              7th bit - execute by group?      (yes, by users)
               8th bit - read by everyone?      (yes, by everyone)
                9th bit - write by everyone?     (no)
                 10th bit - execute by everyone?  (yes, by everyone)

The following lines are examples of the minimum sets of permissions that are required to perform the access described. You may want to give more permission than what's listed, but this should describe what these minimum permissions on directories do:

dr--------  The contents can be listed, but file attributes can't be read
d--x------  The directory can be entered, and used in full execution
dr-x------  File attributes can be read by owner
d-wx------  Files can be created/deleted, even if the directory
             isn't the current one
d------x-t  Prevents files from deletion by others with write
             access. Used on /tmp
d---s--s--  No effect

System configuration files (usually in /etc) are usually mode 640 (-rw-r-----), and owned by root. Depending on your site's security requirements, you might adjust this. Never leave any system files writable by a group or everyone. Some configuration files, including /etc/shadow, should only be readable by root, and directories in /etc should at least not be accessible by others.

SUID Shell Scripts

SUID shell scripts are a serious security risk, and for this reason the kernel will not honor them. Regardless of how secure you think the shell script is, it can be exploited to give the cracker a root shell.

5.3 Integrity Checking

Another very good way to detect local (and also network) attacks on your system is to run an integrity checker like Tripwire, Aide or Osiris. These integrety checkers run a number of checksums on all your important binaries and config files and compares them against a database of former, known-good values as a reference. Thus, any changes in the files will be flagged.

It's a good idea to install these sorts of programs onto a floppy, and then physically set the write protect on the floppy. This way intruders can't tamper with the integrety checker itself or change the database. Once you have something like this setup, it's a good idea to run it as part of your normal security administration duties to see if anything has changed.

You can even add a crontab entry to run the checker from your floppy every night and mail you the results in the morning. Something like:

                # set mailto
                # run Tripwire
                15 05 * * * root /usr/local/adm/tcheck/tripwire 
will mail you a report each morning at 5:15am.

Integrety checkers can be a godsend to detecting intruders before you would otherwise notice them. Since a lot of files change on the average system, you have to be careful what is cracker activity and what is your own doing.

You can find the open sourced version of Tripwire at, free of charge. Manuals and support can be purchased.

Aide can be found at

Osiris can be found at

5.4 Trojan Horses

"Trojan Horses" are named after the fabled ploy in Homer's "Iliad". The idea is that a cracker distributes a program or binary that sounds great, and encourages other people to download it and run it as root. Then the program can compromise their system while they are not paying attention. While they think the binary they just pulled down does one thing (and it might very well), it also compromises their security.

You should take care of what programs you install on your machine. Redhat provides MD5 checksums and PGP signatures on it's RPM files so you can verify you are installing the real thing. Other distributions have similar methods. You should never run any unfamiliar binary, for which you don't have the source, as root! Few attackers are willing to release source code to public scrutiny.

Although it can be complex, make sure you are getting the source for a program from its real distribution site. If the program is going to run as root, make sure either you or someone you trust has looked over the source and verified it.

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