Make that versions. The 2.0 series kernels are still available for older machines. The latest production kernel series is 2.2.x. The updates to this kernel are bug fixes. The new 2.4 kernel sources are also on-line.
The Web page at http://www.kernel.org/ lists the current versions of the development and production kernels.
If you want to download the source code, FTP to ftp.xx.kernel.org, where ``xx'' is the two-letter Internet domain abbreviation of your country; e.g., ``us'' for United States, ``ca'' for Canada, or ``de'' for Germany. Kernel versions 2.2.x are archived in the directory pub/linux/kernel/v2.2, as are patches for the prerelease versions. The kernel source code is archived as a .tar.gz file, and as a .tar.bz2 file.
Follow the instructions in any of the standard references to compile the kernel, as you would with any other custom kernel. The Documentation subdirectory contains information by the authors of various subsystems and drivers, and much of that information is not documented elsewhere.
If you want to participate in kernel development, make sure that you sign on to the linux-kernel mailing list to find out what people are working on. Refer to the answer: ``What Mailing Lists Are There?''
There is a story about the features of the 2.4 series kernels at http://features.linuxtoday.com/stories/8191.html.
Look in the following places, and the sites that mirror them.
For a list of Linux FTP sites, refer to the answer for: ``Where Are the Linux FTP Archives?''
If you don't have access to FTP, try the FTP-by-mail servers: , , or: .
A complete list of HOWTO's is available in the file HOWTO-INDEX at http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/howtos.html. The mini-HOWTO's are indexed at http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/mini.html.
A search engine at the Linux FAQ Home Page, http://www.mainmatter.com/, allows you to search LDP HOWTO's, the Linux FAQ, man pages, and Network Administrator's Guide.
In addition, translations are available from ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/ and mirrors worldwide. The HOWTO's and other documentation have been translated into the following languages:
Chinese (Big5) (zh) Croatian (hr) French (fr) German (de Hellenic (el) Indonesian (id) Italian (it) Japanese (ja) Korean (ko) Polish (pl) Slovenian (sl) Spanish (es) Swedish (sv) Turkish (tr)
Additional documents are always in preparation. Please get in touch with the coordinators if you are interested in writing one. Contact and submission information is at http://www.linuxdoc.org/mailinfo.html.
There is also a LDP HOWTO page at http://howto.tucows.org/.
The Guide Series produced by the Linux Documentation Project is available from http://www.linuxdoc.org/. Please read them if you are new to Unix and Linux.
The Linux Mobile Guide is an expanded version of the Linux-Laptop-HOWTO. The URL is: http://home.snafu.de/wehe/howtos.html.
And, of course, a number of people have written documentation independently of the LDP:
Linux Administrators Security Guide, by Kurt Seifried. http://www.freek.com/lasg/.
Newbie's Linux Manual. http://www.linuxdoc.org/nlm/.
One-Page Linux Manual. http://www.powerup.com.au/~squadron/.
Rute Users Tutorial and Exposition. http://rute.sourceforge.net/.
Short beginners' manual for Linux. Also available in Dutch. http://www.stuwww.kub.nl/people/b.vannunen/linux-man.php3.
Virtual Frame buffer HOWTO, by Alex Buell. http://www.tahallah.demon.co.uk/programming/prog.html.
X11 & TrueType Fonts, by Peter Kleiweg. http://www.let.rug.nl/~kleiweg/.
Documentation for kernel developers is on-line: http://kernelbook.sourceforge.net/.
To find out about Linux memory management, including performance tuning, see Rik van Riel's Web page at http://humbolt.geo.uu.nl/Linux-MM/.
The Linux Consultants HOWTO has a directory of Linux consultants at http://www.linuxports.com/.
Gary's Encyclopedia lists over 4,000 Linux related links. Its URL is http://members.aa.net/~swear/pedia/index.html.
There is also a FAQ specifically for the Red Hat Linux distribution, at http://www.best.com/~aturner/RedHat-FAQ/faq_index.html.
And the Home Page of this FAQ is http://www.mainmatter.com/.
In addition to the Linux Documentation Project Home Page: http://www.linuxdoc.org/, there are many pages that provide beginning and advanced information about Linux.
These two pages provide a good starting point for general Linux information: Linux International's Home Page, at http://www.li.org/, and the Linux Online's Linux Home Page at http://www.linux.org/.
Both of these pages provide links to other sites, information about general information, distributions, new software, documentation, and news.
Documentation for kernel developers is on-line: http://kernelbook.sourceforge.net/.
The tutorial, Unix is a Four Letter Word..., is located at http://www.linuxbox.com/~taylor/4ltrwrd/. It is a general introduction to Unix operating systems and is not Linux specific.
Additionally, here is a certainly incomplete list of Web pages devoted to Linux:
Adventures in Linux Programming: http://members.tripod.com/rpragana/.
Dave Central Linux Software Archive: http://linux.davecentral.com/.
Erlug Webzine (Italian): http://www.erlug.linux.it/.
Free Unix Giveaway List: http://visar.csustan.edu/giveaway.html. Lists offers of free Linux CDs. Also available via E-mail: , with the Subject: send giveaway_list.
Information on Linux in corporate environments: http://www.smartstocks.com/linux.html.
Jeanette Russo's Linux Newbie Information: http://www.stormloader.com/jrusso2/index.html.
Linux Cartoons: http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~conradp/linux/cartoons/.
Linuxinfor.com - Online Linux Resources: http://www.linuxinfor.com/.
LinuxDevices.com: The Embedded Linux Portal: http://www.linuxdevices.com.
Linux Educational Needs Posting Page: http://www.slip.net/~brk/linuxedpp.htm.
Linux in Business: Case Studies: http://www.bynari.com/collateral/case_studies.html.
Linux Hardware Database Laptop Superguide: http://lhd.zdnet.com/db/superguide.php3?catid=18.
Linux Inside: http://linuxinside.org/.
Linux Links: http://www.linuxlinks.com/.
Linux Memory Management Home Page: http://humbolt.geo.uu.nl/Linux-MM/.
Linux Newbie Project: http://kusma.hypermart.net/.
Linux on the Thinkpad 760ED: http://www.e-oasis.com/linux-tp.html.
Linux Parallel Port Home Page: http://www.torque.net/linux-pp.html.
Linux MIDI & Sound Applications: http://sound.condorow.net/.
Linux Start: http://www.linuxstart.com/.
Linux Tips and Tricks Page: http://www.patoche.org/LTT/.
Linux Today PR: http://www.linuxpr.com/.
My Linux Contributions by Richard Gooch: http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/.
Micro Channel Linux Web Page: http://www.dgmicro.com/mca/.
Parallel port scanners and SANE: http://www2.prestel.co.uk/hex/scanners.html.
Pascal Central: http://www.pascal-central.com/
PegaSoft Portal: http://www.vaxxine.com/pegasoft/portal/
Red Hat and ISDN4Linux: http://www.webideal.de/.
The Free Linux CD Project: http://www.freelinuxcd.org/.
The Site for People Learning Perl: http://learn.perl.org/.
USB Linux Home Page: http://peloncho.fis.ucm.es/~inaky/uusbd-www/.
VLUG: The Virtual Linux Users Group: http://www.vlug.com/.
Searching for ``Linux'' on Web Search Engines, like Yahoo! (http://www.yahoo.com/), Altavista (http://www.altavista.com/), or Google (http://www.google.com/) will provide copious references to Linux Web sites. Further information about about Web search engines is in the Web and Internet Search Engine Faq: http://www.infobasic.com/pagefaq.html.
Refer also to the answer for: ``What Other FAQ's and Documentation Are There for Linux?''
Comp.os.linux.announce is the moderated announcements group. You should read this if you intend to use Linux. It contains information about software updates, new ports, user group meetings, and commercial products. It is the only newsgroup that may carry commercial postings. Submissions for that group should be e-mailed to .
Comp.os.linux.announce is archived at: http://www.iki.fi/mjr/linux/cola.html, and ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/comp.os.linux.announce/.
Also worth reading are the following other groups in the comp.os.linux.* and alt.uu.comp.os.linux.* hierarchies—you may find many common problems too recent for the documentation but are answered in the newsgroups.
Remember that Linux is POSIX compatible, and most all of the material in the comp.unix.* and comp.windows.x.* groups will be relevant. Apart from hardware considerations, and some obscure or very technical low-level issues, you'll find that these groups are good places to start.
Information about e-mail clients (MUA's), mail transfer agents (MTA's), and other related software are in the comp.mail.* groups, especially:
Questions and information about News reading software are in: news.software.readers.
Please read ``If this Document Still Hasn't Answered Your Question....'' before posting. Cross posting between different comp.os.linux.* groups is rarely a good idea.
There may well be Linux groups local to your institution or area—check there first.
See also ``How To Get Information without Usenet Access.''
Other regional and local newsgroups also exist—you may find the traffic more manageable there. The French Linux newsgroup is fr.comp.os.linux. In Germany there is de.comp.os.linux.*. In Australia, try aus.computers.linux. In Croatia there is hr.comp.linux. In Italy, there is it.comp.linux.
A search of http://groups.google.com/ can provide an up-to-date list of News groups.
[Axel Boldt, Robert Kiesling]
There are a number of special interest FAQ's on different subjects related to system administration and use, and also on miscellaneous topics like Flying Saucer Attacks (the music) and support for recovering sysadmins.
The official Usenet FAQ archives are: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/.
The Internet FAQ Consortium provides a searchable archive at: http://www.faqs.org/. The site also maintains a current archive of Internet Request For Comment (RFC), Best Current Practices (BCP), and For Your Information (FYI) documents.
Here are some FAQ's and documents that might be especially useful, and their network addresses:
A FAQ for new users: http://homes.arealcity.com/swietanowski/LinuxFAQ/.
AfterStep FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/astepfaq/AfterStep-FAQ.html.
BASH Frequently Asked Questions: ftp://ftp.cwru.edu/pug/bash/FAQ/.
de.comp.os.unix.linux.infos - FAQ: http://www.dcoul.de/.
Frequently Asked Questions about Open Source: http://www.opensource.org/faq.html.
GNU Emacs: http://www.lerner.co.il/emacs/faq-body.shtml.
GNU Linux in Science and Engineering: http://www.comsoc.org/vancouver/scieng.html.
GNU Troff (groff) Info: http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/gnu/groff/.
Gnus 5.x: http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/.
KDE FAQ: http://www.kde.org/faq.html.
GNU General Public License FAQ: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl-faq.html.
Linux PPP FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/pppfaq/PPP-FAQ.html.
Linux-Raid FAQ: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/raidfaq/index.html.
List of Periodic Information Postings: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/periodic-postings/.
News.newusers.announce FAQ http://web.presby.edu/~nnqadmin/nan/.
Online Linux Resources: http://www.linuxinfor.com/en/docfaq.htm.
O'Reilly & Associates Openbook Project: http://www.oreilly.com/openbook/.
Sendmail: Installation and Operation Guide: Formatted and me source versions are in the doc/ subdirectory of Sendmail source code distributions. http://www.sendmail.org/.
Technical FAQ for Linux Users: http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-faq/?n-l-7261.
Web Internet Search Engine: http://www.infobasic.com/pagefaq.html
Wu-ftpd: http://www.wu-ftpd.org/man/ (really a collection of man pages), with HOWTO's at: http://www.wu-ftpd.org/HOWTO/
XTERM—Frequently Asked Questions. http://dickey.his.com/xterm/xterm.faq.html.
There are three main archive sites for Linux:
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/. Recently renamed to http://ibiblio.org/pub/linux/ with a nice WWW interface. (US).
The best place to get the Linux kernel is ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/. Linus Torvalds uploads the most recent kernel versions to this site.
The Small Linux distribution, which can run in 2 MB of RAM, is located at http://smalllinux.netpedia.net/.
The contents of these sites is mirrored (copied, usually approximately daily) by a number of other sites. Please use a site close to you—it will be faster for you and easier on the network.
ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/pub/linux/sunsite/ (South Africa)
ftp://ftp.is.co.za/linux/sunsite/ (South Africa).
ftp://ftp.cs.cuhk.hk/pub/Linux/ (Hong Kong).
ftp://sunsite.ust.hk/pub/Linux/ (Hong Kong).
ftp://planetmirror.com/pub/linux (Australia). (Also take a look at http://planetmirror.com/archives.php.)
ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/UNIX/linux/ (Czech Republic).
Please send updates and corrections to this list to the Linux FAQ maintainer, . Not all of these mirror all of the other ``source'' sites, and some have material not available on the ``source'' sites.
The easiest thing is probably to find a friend with FTP access. If there is a Linux user's group near you, they may be able to help.
If you have a reasonably good email connection, you could try the FTP-by-mail servers at , or .
Linux is also available via traditional mail on CD-ROM. The file ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO, and the file ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Distribution-HOWTO contain information on these distributions.
A digest of comp.os.linux.announce is available by mailing the word "subscribe" (without the quotes) as the body of a message to . Subscribing to this list is a good idea, as it carries important information and documentation about Linux.
Please remember to use the *-request addresses for your subscribe and unsubscribe messages; mail to the other address is posted to the news group.
The Linux developers now mainly use the Majordomo server at . Send a message with the word "lists" (without the quotes) in the body to get a list of lists there. Add a line with the word, "help," to get the standard Majordomo help file that lists instructions for subscribing and unsubscribing to the lists.
Currently, the kernel list is archived at: http://www.uwsg.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/, and http://www.lib.uaa.alaska.edu/linux-kernel/archive/
Please do not post off-topic material to the mailing lists. Most of them are used by Linux developers to talk about technical issues and future developments. They are not intended for new users' questions, advertisements, or public postings that are not directly related to the mailing list's subject matter. Comp.os.linux.announce is the place for all public announcements. This is a common Internet policy. If you don't observe this guideline, there's a good chance that you'll be flamed.
There is a linux-newbie list where, "no question is too stupid." Unfortunately, it seems that few experienced users read that list, and it has very low volume.
There are numerous Linux related mailing lists at http://www.onelist.com/. Go to the categories page and choose "Linux." There are also mailing list subscription links at: http://oslab.snu.ac.kr/~djshin/linux/mail-list/.
The Mailing Lists Available in Usenet page is: http://paml.net/. The list information is also on: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/, and is posted to the groups: news.announce.newgroups, news.lists, and news.groups, among others.
On the linux-legal mailing list, of course. You can subscribe to it, as with many of the other Linux related lists, by sending a message with the word "help" in the body of the message to .
There are Web pages at: http://unmaintained.sourceforge.net, and: http://www.orphansource.org/.
Please try to contact the original author(s) via e-mail, or the person who listed the software as unmaintained, before even thinking to place a license on the package.
The Usenet Linux news groups are archived at http://groups.google.com/.
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/linux-announce.archive contains archives of comp.os.linux.announce. These are mirrored from ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/, which also archives comp.os.linux, comp.os.linux.development.apps, and comp.os.linux.development.system.
There's a page of Linux related security information at: http://www.linuxsecurity.com/.
Another site is: http://www.rootshell.com/, which has information about Internet security and privacy issues.
For information about the Weekly Linux Security Digest email newsletter and numerous security related databases, look at http://securityportal.com/.
As a start, look at the Linux Standards Base, http://www.linuxbase.org/. The site contains information about test software, file system organization, and shared library naming conventions.